The role of democratic parenting, school climate, and internal locus of control as predictors of academic optimism

Vivi Ratnawati, Hanggara Budi Utomo, Risaniatin Ningsih, Nora Yuniar Setyaputri


This study aims to examine the relationship between democratic parenting, school climate, and internal locus of control with academic optimism. This research method is a correlational study involving 335 students of (State Junior High Schools) SMPN in Kediri city. Data were taken directly from the research sample using the cluster random sampling technique. Collecting data used scales of democratic parenting, school climate, internal locus of control, and academic optimism. Multiple regression technique was used to analyze the data on SPSS 20. The results showed a positive and significant relationship between democratic parenting and academic optimism, school climate and academic optimism, internal locus of control and academic optimism. Besides, the result also showed that democratic parenting, school climate, internal locus of control simultaneously affected academic optimism in students. This study recommends counseling and guidance teachers, homeroom teachers, and parents to work together to grow and improve students' academic optimism in Kediri city so that the students can actualize their character optimally and develop effectively


Democratic parenting; School climate; Internal locus of control; Academic optimism


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