The Retention of Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: A Framework for Persistence

Jeffry L. White, G.H. Massiha


Women make up 47% of the total U.S. workforce, but are less represented in engineering, computer sciences, and the physical sciences. In addition, race and ethnicity are salient factors and minority women comprise fewer than 1 in 10 scientist or engineer. In this paper, a review of the literature is under taken that explores the many challenges women encounter when pursing a career in the sciences. It includes a review of the national landscape and discussion of the guiding general retention theories. Finally it proposes a conceptual framework for persistence and proffers a number of research questions designed to delve deeper into the under representation phenomenon.


Women, Persistence, STEM, Retention

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Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)
p-ISSN: 2252-8822, e-ISSN: 2620-5440
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