Studying Online from Home and Social Anxiety among University Students: The Role of Societal and interpersonal Mattering

Ahmad Naufal Fawwaz, Kususanto Ditto Prihadi, Endah Kurniawati Purwaningtyas

Abstract


Literature suggested that the enforcement of lockdowns such as the Movement Control Order (MCO) had limited physical social interaction and therefore increased the inclination on social media and other means of digital communication. This shift of social pattern was reported to alter the way young adults develop their mattering, the sense of how much they matter to others. While mattering has been reported as the protective factors against social anxiety, this study aims to investigate the contribution of interpersonal mattering and societal mattering on social anxiety among university students who had to study online from home during the enforcement of the Movement Control Order (MCO) in Malaysia amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2021. Purposive sampling was conducted to recruit 158 participants (89 females, 69 males) with their ages ranging from 18 to 25 years of age (M=21.77, SD=1.54) to respond to Mattering to Others Questionnaire, University Mattering Scale, and Social Phobia Inventory. The results of multiple linear regression supported the hypotheses that both types of mattering negatively predict social anxiety, and that interpersonal mattering was no longer a significant predictor when controlling for societal mattering. The controversy of these findings towards many previous studies is discussed at the end of this paper.

Keywords


Lockdown; Study online from home; Social Anxiety; Societal Mattering; Interpersonal Mattering

References


K. Kamaludin, K. Chinna, S. Sundarasen, H. B. Khoshaim, M. Nurunnabi, G. M. A. S. Baloch and S. Hossein, "Coping with COVID-19 and movement control order (MCO): experiences of university students in Malaysia," Heliyon, vol. 6, no. 11, p. e05339, 2020.

T. Elmer, K. Mepham and C. Stadtfeld, "Students under lockdown: Comparisons of students’ social networks and mental health before and during the COVID-19 crisis in Switzerland.," Plos one, vol. 15, no. 7, p. e0236337, 2020.

W. D. Killgore, E. C. Taylor, S. A. Cloonan and N. S. Dailey, "Psychological resilience during the COVID-19 lockdown.," Psychiatry research, no. 291, p. 113216, 2020.

S. Sood, "Psychological effects of the Coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic.," Research & Humanities in Medical Education, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 23-26, 2020.

S. Casale and G. L. Flett, "Interpersonally-based fears during the covid-19 pandemic: Reflections on the fear of missing out and the fear of not mattering constructs.," Clinical Neuropsychiatry, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 88–93, 2020.

M. T. Johnson, E. A. Johnson, L. Webber and D. Nettle, "Mitigating social and economic sources of trauma: The need for universal basic income during the coronavirus pandemic," Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. S191-S192, 2020.

S. K. Brooks, R. K. Webster, L. E. Smith, L. Woodland, S. Wessely, N. Greenberg and G. J. Rubin, "The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence," The Lancet, vol. 395, no. 10227, pp. 912-920, 2020.

K. N. Fountoulakis, M. K. Apostolidou, M. B. Atsiova, A. K. Filippidou, A. K. Florou, D. S. Gousiou, A. R. Katsara, S. N. Mantzari, M. Padouva-Markoulaki, E. I. Papatriantafyllou, P. I. Sacharidi, A. I. Tonia, E. G. Tsagalidou, V. P. Zymara, P. E. Prezerakos, S. A. Koupidis, N. K. Fountoulakis and G. P. Chrousos, "Self-reported changes in anxiety, depression and suicidality during the COVID-19 lockdown in Greece.," Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 279, pp. 624-629, 2021.

V. E. Moran, F. O. Olaz, E. R. Pérez and Z. A. P. d. Prette, "Emotional-Evolutional Model of social anxiety in university student," International journal of psychology and psychological therapy, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 315-330, 2018.

R. M. Hakami, M. S. Mahfouz, A. M. Adawi, A. J. Mahha, A. J. Athathi, H. H. Daghreeri, H. H. Najmi and N. A. Areeshi, "Social anxiety disorder and its impact in undergraduate students at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia," Mental Illness, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 7274, 2017.

R. J. Ahmad, H. Bayan, T. Faque and P. A. M. Seidi, "Prevalence of social anxiety in students of college of education – university of garmian," Researchers World, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 78-82, 2017.

J. M. O. Regis, A. T. A. Ramos-Cerqueira, M. C. P. Lima and A. R. Torres, "Social anxiety symptoms and body image dissatisfaction in medical students: prevalence and correlates," Jornal Brasileiro De Psiquiatria, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 65-73, 2018.

F. Azhar, J. Gill and A. Sulaiman, "Social anxiety disorder among applicants to the psychiatry Master’s Degree program in Malaysia," European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 27, 2017.

K. M. Connor, J. R. T. Davidson, L. E. Churchill, A. Sherwood, E. Foa and R. H. Weisler, "Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). New self-rating scale.," British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 176, no. 4, pp. 379-386, 2000.

F. Leichsenring and F. Leweke, "Social Anxiety Disorder," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 376, no. 23, pp. 2255-2264, 2017.

A. Abdollahi and M. A. Talib, "Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight," Psychology Health & Medicine, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 221-225, 2016.

J. Cejudo, D. Rodrigo-Ruiz, M. L. López-Delgado and L. Losada, "Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Levels of Social Anxiety and Stress in Adolescents," International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 15, no. 6, p. 1073, 2018.

M. H. Lim, T. L. Rodebaugh, M. J. Zyphur and J. F. M. Gleeson, "Loneliness over time: the crucial role of social anxiety," Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 620-630, 2016.

B. J. Smith and M. H. Lim, "How the COVID-19 pandemic is focusing attention on loneliness and social isolation.," Public Health Research & Practice, vol. 30, no. 2, p. 3022008, 2020.

R. Arjanggi and L. P. S. Kusumaningsih, "The Correlation between Social Anxiety and Academic Adjustment among Freshmen," Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 219, pp. 104-107, 2016.

S. Pitcho-Prelorentzos, C. Heckel and L. Ring, "Predictors of social anxiety among online dating users," Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 110, p. 106381, 2020.

S. Castaños-Cervantes and N. Vélez-Agosto, "Psychosocial predictors of social anxiety in children," Suma Psicológica, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 43-51, 2020.

G. L. Flett, A. L. Goldstein, I. G. Pechenkov, T. Nepon and C. Wekerle, "Antecedents, correlates, and consequences of feeling like you don't matter: Associations with maltreatment, loneliness, social anxiety, and the five-factor model.," Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 92, pp. 52-56, 2016.

M. Rosenberg and B. C. McCullough, "Mattering: Inferred significance and mental health among adolescents.," Research in Community & Mental Health, vol. 2, p. 163–182, 1981.

Y. Choi and H.-Y. Hong, "The Mediating Effects of Mattering and Self-Acceptance in the Relationship between Socially Prescribed Perfectionism and Social Anxiety," The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 259-270, 2020.

S. K. Marshall, "Do I matter? Construct validation of adolescents' perceived mattering to parents and friends.," Journal of Adolescence, vol. 24, no. 4, p. 473–490, 2001.

G. Elliott, S. Kao and A. M. Grant, "Mattering: Empirical validation of a social-psychological concept.," Self and Identity, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 339–354, 2004.

C. J. Schmidt, S. A. Stoddard, J. E. C. C. H. Heinze and M. A. Zimmerman, "Examining contextual and relational factors influencing perceptions of societal and interpersonal mattering among rural youth," Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 48, pp. 1-20, 2020.

A. K. Jung, "Interpersonal and societal mattering in work: A review and critique.," The Career Development Quarterly, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 194-208, 2015.

H. Taniguchi, "Interpersonal Mattering in Friendship as a Predictor of Happiness in Japan: The Case of Tokyoites," Journal of Happiness Studies, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1475-1491, 2015.

C. Matera, N. Bosco and P. Meringolo, "Perceived Mattering to Family and Friends, Self-Esteem, and Well-Being," Psychol Health Med, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 550-558, 2020.

S.-Y. Kam and D. K. Prihadi, "Why students tend to compare themselves with each other? The role of mattering and uncondictional self-acceptance.," International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 441~447, 2021.

A. Shannon, G. L. Flett and J. O. Goldberg, "Feelings of Not Mattering, Perceived Stigmatization for Seeking Help, and Help-Seeking Attitudes among University Students.," International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, pp. 1-10, 2019.

K. M. Edwards and A. M. Neal, "School and community characteristics related to dating violence victimization among high school youth," Psychology of Violence, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 203-212, 2017.

Z. Foo and K. D. Prihadi, "Happiness of University Students in New Normal Malaysia: The Role of Mattering, Optimism, and Social Support," International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, pp. 448-454, 2021.

K. D. Prihadi, C. Y. Wong, E. Y. Chong and K. Y. Chong, "Suicidal Thoughts among University Students in Malaysia and Indonesia: The Role of Mattering, State Self-Esteem and Depression Level," International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 494-502, 2020a.

J. X. Wiebenga, M. Eikelenboom, H. D. Heering, P. v. Oppen and B. W. Penninx, "Suicide ideation versus suicide attempt: Examining overlapping and differential determinants in a large cohort of patients with depression and/or anxiety.," Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 167-179, 2021.

K. Prihadi, Y. L. Hui, M. J. Chua and C. K. W. Chang, "Cyber-victimization and perceived depression: Serial mediation of self-esteem and learned-helplessness," International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 563-574, 2019.

D. Smith, T. Leonis and S. Anandavalli, "Belonging and loneliness in cyberspace: impacts of social media on adolescents’ well-being," Australian Journal of Psychology, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 12-23., 2021.

T. Wood, S. Kenneally and F. Birrell, "What the obesity epidemic does not need: A cancel culture," Lifestyle Medicine, vol. 2, no. 1, 2021.

Y. Lin and S. Kant, "Using Social Media for Citizen Participation: Contexts, Empowerment, and Inclusion," Sustainability, vol. 13, no. 12, p. 6635, 2021.

K. Prihadi and M. Chua, "Students' Self-esteem at School: The Risk, the Challenge, and the Cure," Journal of Education and Learning, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 1-14, 2012.

T. M. Dumas, P. A. Giuliettia, J. P. Davi and M. Maxwell-Smith, "Lying or longing for likes? Narcissism, peer belonging, loneliness and normative versus deceptive like-seeking on Instagram in emerging adulthood," Computers in Human Behavior, no. 71, pp. 1-10, 2017.

C. P. Barlett, D. A. Gentile and C. Chew, "Predicting cyberbullying from anonymity," Psychology of Popular Media Culture, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 171-180, 2016.

S. E. McComb, J. O. Goldberg, G. L. Flett and A. L. Rose, "The Double Jeopardy of Feeling Lonely and Unimportant: State and Trait Loneliness and Feelings and Fears of Not Mattering.," Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 11, p. 563420, 2020.

D. A. De Vries and R. Kühne, "Facebook and self-perception: Individual susceptibility to negative social comparison on Facebook," Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 86, pp. 217-221, 2015.

M. Tsay-Vogel, J. Shanahan and N. Signorielli, "Social media cultivating perceptions of privacy: A 5-year analysis of privacy attitudes and self-disclosure behaviors among Facebook users," new media & society, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 141-161, 2018.

V. Dogan, "Why Do People Experience the Fear of Missing Out (FoMO)? Exposing the Link Between the Self and the FoMO Through Self-Construal:," Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 524-538, 2019.

L. Bareket-Bojmel, S. Moran and G. Shahar, "Strategic self-presentation on Facebook: Personal motives and audience response to online behavior," Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 55, p. 788–795, 2016.

E. A. Vogel, J. P. Rose, B. M. Okdie, K. Eckles and B. Franz, "Who compares and despairs? The effect of social comparison orientation on social media use and its outcomes," Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 86, p. 249–256, 2015.

P. P. Sim and K. Prihadi, "They Logged-in, Compared, and Satisfied: Serial Mediation of Mattering and State Self-esteem on the Link between Social Comparison and Life Satisfaction.," International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS), vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 245-254, 2020.

A. K. Przybylski, K. Murayama, C. R. DeHaan and V. Gladwell, "Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out," Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 29, pp. 1841-1848, 2013.

M. K. France and S. J. Finney, "What matters in the measurement of mattering? A construct validity study.," Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 104-120, 2009.




DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v11i3.23464

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)
p-ISSN: 2252-8822, e-ISSN: 2620-5440

View IJERE Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.