Single Subject Research in Mild mentally Retarded Students: Increasing the Ability to Recognize Numbers with the help of Number Card Media

I Istiqomah, Rika Yuliani, Rooselyna Ekawati, Sri Adi Widodo


Mentally retarded is a mental disorder with an IQ between 55-70, besides that mentally retarded children are only able to think concretely. For this reason, learning mathematics for mentally retarded students requires learning media that can bridge abstract mathematical material with the abilities of mentally retarded children who are only able to think concretely. The objective of this study was to improve the recognition of 1-20 numbers using number cards for students with mild mental retardation. The research used is single subject research method with basic design non reversal. Study subjects were selected based on a purposive sampling technique, as the researcher had to look for subjects with mild mental retardation. Data collection techniques use documentation to find out subjects with mild mental retardation characteristics, and tests to determine the subject's ability to recognize numbers 1-20. The results of this study indicate that the number card media can improve the ability of mild mentally retarded students to recognize numbers 1-20. This can be seen from the average in the baseline phase of 39 with a percentage of the ability to recognize numbers of 33.3%, and in the intervention phase of 74.44 with a percentage of the ability to recognize numbers of 88.89%.


Mental Retardation; Card of Number; Number; Single Subject Research


S. Hegde and S. A. Bhaskar, “Oral myiasis: A concealed threat to disabled children of developing countries,” J. Dent. Child., vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 112–115, 2015.

Y. Suchyadi, Y. Ambarsari, and E. Sukmanasa, “Analysis of Social Interaction of Mentally Retarded Children,” JHSS (Journal Humanit. Soc. Stud., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 17–21, 2018, doi: 10.33751/jhss.v2i2.903.

D. R. Rapisa, E. Damastuti, and A. A. Putri, “Identification of Children with Special Needs in Inclusive Schools,” J. ICSAR, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 15–20, 2021.

M. Condon and L. Ruth-Sahd, “Responding to introverted and shy students: Best practice guidelines for educators and advisors,” Open J. Nurs., vol. 3, no. 07, p. 503, 2013.

M. S. A. Raouf, M. A. K. Alenizi, and K. M. Attia, “Effectiveness of an educational program using a computer in the development of some of the mathematical concepts among mentally retarded educable students and modifying their adaptive behavior.,” Int. J. Humanit. Cult. Stud. (IJHCS) ISSN 2356-5926, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1–23, 2016.

N. Nurhusni and F. Fatmawati, “Mentally Disabled Sex Education through Powerpoint Media,” Educ. J. Educ., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 192–199, 2019.

M. Foadodini and H. Beydokhti, “The effect of drama therapy base on social skill adjusting behavior of mental retarded girls (IQ= 55-70, 14-30 years old),” J. Res. Rehabil. Sci., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 913–918, 2012.

Z. Kiarasi, S. Kiarasi, and A. Kiarasi, “The effect of story animations on social development and adjustment on educable mentally retarded students,” Inf. Commun. Technol. Educ. Sci., vol. 6, no. 4 (24), pp. 91–110, 2016.

S. Chodura, J. T. Kuhn, and H. Holling, “Interventions for children with mathematical difficulties: A meta-analysis,” Zeitschrift fur Psychol. / J. Psychol., vol. 223, no. 2, pp. 129–144, 2015, doi: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000211.

A. Dowker and G. Sigley, “Targeted interventions for children with arithmetical difficulties,” Br. J. Educ. Psychol., vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1086–1096, 2010, doi: 10.1348/97818543370009x12583699332492.

P. Scherer, K. Beswick, L. DeBlois, L. Healy, and E. M. Opitz, “Assistance of students with mathematical learning difficulties: how can research support practice?,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Mathematical Education, 2017, pp. 249–259, doi: 10.1007/s11858-016-0800-1.

S. Baştürk, “Secondary school mathematics student teachers’ causal attribution for success and failure in mathematics,” Eur. J. Sci. Math. Educ., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 365–379, 2016.

M. C. Dekker, T. B. Ziermans, and H. Swaab, “The impact of behavioural executive functioning and intelligence on math abilities in children with intellectual disabilities,” J. Intellect. Disabil. Res., vol. 60, no. 1086–1096, 2016, doi: 10.1111/jir.12276.

M. El-Keshky and M. Emam, “Emotional and behavioural difficulties in children referred for learning disabilities from two Arab countries: A cross-cultural examination of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire,” Res. Dev. Disabil., vol. 36, pp. 459–469, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2014.10.039.

M. M. Emam and A. M. Kazem, “Teachers’ perceptions of the concomitance of emotional behavioural difficulties and learning disabilities in children referred for learning disabilities in Oman,” Emot. Behav. Difficulties, vol. 36, pp. 459–469, 2015, doi: 10.1080/13632752.2014.964083.

H. A. Harvey and G. E. Miller, “Executive Function Skills, Early Mathematics, and Vocabulary in Head Start Preschool Children,” Early Educ. Dev., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 290–307, 2017, doi: 10.1080/10409289.2016.1218728.

A. J. Martin, T. M. Cumming, S. C. O’Neill, and I. Strnadová, “Social and emotional competence and at-risk children’s well-being: The roles of personal and interpersonal agency for children with ADHD, emotional and behavioral disorder, learning disability, and developmental disability,” in Social and Emotional Learning in Australia and the Asia-Pacific: Perspectives, Programs and Approaches, 2017.

J. R. Weisz, R. Bromfield, and D. L. Vines, “Cognitive Development, Helpless Behavior,” Appl. Dev. Psychol. Vol. 2, vol. 2, p. 129, 2013.

J.-L. Paour, “From structural diagnosis to functional diagnosis of reasoning: a dynamic conception of mental retardation,” Work. with Piaget Essays Honour Barbel Inhelder, p. 13, 2013.

Wawan, E. F. Ningsih, S. A. Widodo, Leonard, R. M. Sary, and E. Retnowati, “The Cognitive Load of Learners in the Learning Process of the Rotating Object Volume,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1315, no. 1, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1315/1/012046.

S. A. Widodo et al., “Process of algebra problem-solving in formal student,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1657, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1657/1/012092.

J. L. Singer and D. G. Singer, “A Cognitive-Affective Theory of the Development of Imagination: Family Mediation and Television Influences,” in Organizing Early Experience, Routledge, 2019, pp. 92–115.

L. K. Odynchenko and T. Y. Skyba, “To the Problem of Activation of the Cognitive Activity of Mentally Retarded Students at the Lessons of the Course «Geography оf Ukraine»,” 2018.

A. L. Brown, “Development, schooling, and the acquisition of knowledge about knowledge: Comments on Chapter 7 by Nelson,” in Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge, Routledge, 2017, pp. 241–253.

S. Heleni, Z. Zulkarnain, and M. Apriani, “Implementation of Mathematics Learning For Mentally Retarded Children at 6th Grade of Pelita Hati,” in Proceedings of the UR International Conference on Educational Sciences, 2019, pp. 320–327.

G. Joseph and J. Muthee, “Role of Parents in the Education of Mentally Retarded Learners in Selected Schools in Madaraka Zone, Kiambu County, Kenya.,” J. Educ. Pract., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 19–24, 2016.

S. Papadakis, N. Zaranis, and M. Kalogiannakis, “Parental involvement and attitudes towards young Greek children’s mobile usage,” Int. J. Child-Computer Interact., vol. 22, p. 100144, 2019.

S. Papadakis, M. Kalogiannakis, and N. Zaranis, “The effectiveness of computer and tablet assisted intervention in early childhood students’ understanding of numbers. An empirical study conducted in Greece,” Educ. Inf. Technol., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1849–1871, 2018.

S. Papadakis, M. Kalogiannakis, and N. Zaranis, “Teaching mathematics with mobile devices and the Realistic Mathematical Education (RME) approach in kindergarten,” Adv. Mob. Learn. Educ. Res., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 5–18, 2021.

P. Dorouka, S. Papadakis, and M. Kalogiannakis, “Tablets and apps for promoting robotics, mathematics, STEM education and literacy in early childhood education,” Int. J. Mob. Learn. Organ., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 255–274, 2020.

M. Furlong, F. McLoughlin, S. McGilloway, and B. Butterworth, “Interventions to Improve Mathematical Outcomes For Children With Dyscalculia,” in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2015, vol. 3, no. CDXXXXXX, pp. 1–12.

M. Montague and A. K. Jitendra, “Research-Based Mathematics Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities,” in Towards Equity in Mathematics Education, Forgasz H and Rivera F, Eds. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012.

T. D. Anggraini and E. Wahyuno, “The effect of dice game media in use toward counting ability at 1st grade childern with intelectual disability,” J. Penelit. dan Pengemb. Pendidik. Luar Biasa, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 2013.

S. Ramaa, “Arithmetic difficulties among socially disadvantaged children and children with dyscalculia,” in The Routledge International Handbook of Dyscalculia and Mathematical Learning Difficulties, S. Chinn, Ed. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014, pp. 146–166.

A. S. Purnami, M. Mulyoto, and B. Winoto, “Android-based shopping skill for mentally-disable student,” J. Educ. Learn., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 411–415, 2020, doi: 10.11591/edulearn.v14i3.16110.

G. Manginas and C. Nikolantonakis, “The contribution of mathematics online games to qualitive differentiation and intrinsic motivation of students with mild intellectual disabilities,” Eur. J. Spec. Educ. Res., 2018.

M. Grünke, K. Urton, and J. Karnes, “The Effects of a Brief Touch Point Intervention for Children With Intellectual Developmental Disabilities (IDD),” J. Educ. Dev. Psychol., vol. 8, no. 2, p. 187, 2018.

S. A. Widodo, A. Prihatiningsih, and I. Taufiq, “Single subject research: Use of interactive video in children with developmental disabilities with dyscalculia to introduce natural numbers,” Particip. Educ. Res., 2021, doi: 10.17275/per.

N. Esterina, I. T. Mutiara, and C. F. Lee, “Meningkatkan Kemampuan Menulis Angka 1-3 Melalui Metode Stimulasi Multisensoris dan Reinforcement Pada Anak Tuna Grahita Sedang,” Psibernetika, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 100–104, 2020, doi: 10.30813/psibernetika.

A. Yulianti, L. F. Dahriyanto, and Sugiariyanti, “Efektivitas Pembelajaran Remedial Dengan Media Puzzle Angka Untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Mengenal Angka 1–5 Pada Anak Tunagrahita,” Intuisi J. Psikol. Ilm., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 72–78, 2018.

F. Y. Al Irsyadi and Y. S. Nugroho, “Game Edukasi Pengenalan Anggota Tubuh Dan Pengenalan Angka Untuk Anak Berkebutuhan Khusus (ABK) Tunagrahita Berbasis Kinect,” Pros. SNATIF, vol. 2, pp. 1–8, 2015.

N. Ria, “Meningkatkan Kemampuan Mengenal Angka 1-10 Melalui Permainan Arsitek Menara Bagi Anak Tunagrahita Ringan: Single Subject design di KElas III C SLB Negeri Padang,” E-Jupeku J. Ilm. Pendidik. Khusus, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 261–269, 2014.

R. Kartini, “Improving Learning Outcomes of Mathematics Lesson Through Roman Numeral Puzzle at Fourth Grade Elementary School Students in Malang,” in Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), 2018, vol. 147, no. ICSSE 2017, pp. 245–246, doi: 10.2991/icsse-17.2018.57.

G. Salomon, Interaction of media, cognition, and learning: An exploration of how symbolic forms cultivate mental skills and affect knowledge acquisition. Routledge, 2012.

O. R. Odero, “The Availability of Instructional Media for Teaching Mentally Retarded Students in Nyanza Region, Kenya.,” J. Educ. Pract., vol. 7, no. 19, pp. 70–75, 2016.

W. Wahedatul and A. A. Sopandi, “Improving Students’ Ability to Recognize the Concept of Numbers 1-10 through the Modification of the Bocce Game for Mentally Retarded Children while the Class VII In SLB Negeri 2 Padang,” EDUTEC J. Educ. Technol., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 77–82, 2019.

S. A. Annamma, “Whiteness as property: innocence and ability in teacher education.,” Urban Rev., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 293–316, 2015, doi:

L. L. Hakim, F. Alghadari, and S. A. Widodo, “Virtual manipulatives media in mathematical abstraction,” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2019, vol. 1315, no. 1, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1315/1/012017.

B. A. Saputro, “Learning Media Development Approach with A Rectangle Problem Posing Based Geogebra,” Infin. J. Math. Educ., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 121–130, 2016.

Y. Maroofi, A. M. Rad, and M. Z. Ehteshami, “Effectiveness of Educational Multimedia Method on Reducing Mental- Disorders in Third-Elementary Students,” Middle East. J. Disabil. Stud., vol. 8, no. 75, pp. 1–7, 2018.

L. Pradani, S. Lestari, and W. A. Wibowo, “Metode Permainan Ular Tangga Untuk Meningkatkan Keterampilan Berhitung Pada Anak Diskalkulia,” in Proseding Seminar Nasional PGSD UPY, 2015, p. 163.

R. Yunisa and F. Fatmawati, “Media Stick Angka untuk Meningkatkan Pemahaman Konsep Bilangan 1 Sampai 5 bagi Anak Tunagrahita Ringan,” J. Penelit. Pendidik. Khusus, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 289–296, 2018.

S. A. Widodo, Darhim, and T. Ikhwanudin, “Improving mathematical problem solving skills through visual media Improving mathematical problem solving skills through visual media,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 948, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2018, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/948/1/012004.

B. J. Byiers, J. Reichle, and F. J. Symons, “Single-subject experimental design for evidence-based practice,” Am. J. Speech-Language Pathol., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 397–414, 2012, doi: 10.1044/1058-0360(2012/11-0036).

K. A. Freeman and R. F. Eagle, “Single-subject research designs,” in Understanding Research in Clinical and Counseling Psychology, Second Edition, 2011, pp. 124–154.

D. L. Gast and J. R. Ledford, Single subject research methodology in behavioral sciences. Routledge, 2014.

J. W. Creswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. London: Pearson, 2012.

J. W. Creswell, Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Second Edition. Sage Publication, 2012.

P. L. Busk and L. A. Marascuilo, “Statistical analysis in single-case research: Issues, procedures, and recommendations, with applications to multiple behaviors,” in Single-case research design and analysis (psychology revivals), Routledge, 2015, pp. 171–198.

C. H. Skinner, Single-subject designs for school psychologists. Routledge, 2013.

P. A. Blankenship et al., “The medial frontal cortex contributes to but does not organize rat exploratory behavior,” Neuroscience, vol. 336, pp. 1–11, 2016, doi:

L. Erlani, T. Narawati, and Z. Alimin, “Using AAC Media To Improve Dynamics Ability In Music Learning For Autistic Children,” Int. J. Pedagog. Teach. Educ., vol. 2, pp. 12–109, 2018, doi: 10.20961/ijpte.v2i0.25140.

O. G. Setyawan, “Pengaruh Penggunaan Media Teka-Teki Silang Bergambar Terhadap Penguasaan Kosakata Peserta,” J. Ortopedagogia, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 289–295, 2015.

D. A. Stylianou, M. L. Blanton, and O. Rotou, “Undergraduate Students’ Understanding of Proof: Relationships Between Proof Conceptions, Beliefs, and Classroom Experiences with Learning Proof,” Int. J. Res. Undergrad. Math. Educ., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 91–134, 2015, doi: 10.1007/s40753-015-0003-0.

S. A. Widodo, J. A. Dahlan, and Turmudi, “Can Sociomathematical Norms Be Developed With Learning Media?,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1315, no. 1, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1315/1/012005.

S. A. Widodo, J. A. Dahlan, E. Harini, and F. Sulistyowati, “Confirmatory factor analysis sosiomathematics norm among junior high school student,” Int. J. Eval. Res. Educ., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 448–455, 2020, doi: 10.11591/ijere.v9i2.20445.

M. D. Shepherd, A. Selden, and J. Selden, “University Students’ Reading of Their First-Year Mathematics Textbooks,” Math. Think. Learn., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 226–256, 2012, doi: 10.1080/10986065.2012.682959.

C. Weiland, C. B. Wolfe, M. D. Hurwitz, D. H. Clements, J. H. Sarama, and H. Yoshikawa, “Early mathematics assessment: Validation of the short form of a prekindergarten and kindergarten mathematics measure,” Educ. Psychol., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 311–333, 2012, doi: 10.1080/01443410.2011.654190.

K. Jayaraman, S. S. Koon, and N. Annamalai, “The shadow education system: Students’ responses to private tutorial learning,” Malaysian J. Learn. Instr., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 201–225, 2019.

C. L. Kee, “Face-to-Face Tutorials, Learning Management System and WhatsApp Group: How Digital Immigrants Interact and Engage in E-learning?,” Malaysian Online J. Educ. Technol., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 18–35, 2020, doi: 10.17220/mojet.2020.01.002.

T. Truuvert, “Enhancing tutorial learning experiences: A programme to develop sessional-tutor teaching skills by raising awareness about learning,” Stud. High. Educ., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 20–33, 2014, doi: 10.1080/03075079.2012.690731.

L. De Backer, H. Van Keer, and M. Valcke, “Promoting university students’ metacognitive regulation through peer learning: the potential of reciprocal peer tutoring,” High. Educ., vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 469–486, 2015, doi: 10.1007/s10734-014-9849-3.

L. De Backer, H. van Keer, and M. Valcke, “Exploring the potential impact of reciprocal peer tutoring on higher education students’ metacognitive knowledge and regulation,” Instr. Sci., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 559–588, 2012, doi: 10.1007/s11251-011-9190-5.

J. Galbraith and M. Winterbottom, “Peer-tutoring: What’s in it for the tutor?,” Educ. Stud., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 321–332, 2011, doi: 10.1080/03055698.2010.506330.

B. Mall-Amiri and N. Nakhaie, “Comparing the performance of extrovert and introvert intermediate female EFL learners on listening and reading tasks,” Int. J. Lang. Learn. Appl. Linguist. World, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 1, 2013.

A. Yeung, J. Read, and S. Schmid, “Students’ learning styles and academic performance in first year chemistry,” in Proceedings of The Australian Conference on Science and Mathematics Education, 2012, vol. 11.

A. Ş. Özbay, T. Aydemir, and Y. Atasoy, “Extroversion - Introversion in the Context of Foreign Language Learning,” Int. J. Educ. Res., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1–21, 2017.

H. I. Sari, M. Munawaroh, and H. Raharjo, “Analysis of Student’s Creative Thinking Ability in Mathematical Problem Solving in Terms of Extrovert and Introvert Personality Types,” Eduma Math. Educ. Learn. Teach., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 34–42, 2020.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)
p-ISSN: 2252-8822, e-ISSN: 2620-5440

View IJERE Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.