The Validity and Reliability of Quality Improvement and Accreditation System (QIAS) Instrument in Managing Childcare Center

Siti Noor Ismail, Faizahani Ab Rahman, Farah Mohamad Zain, Aizan Yaacob

Abstract


Quality Improvement and Accreditation System (QIAS) instrument was developed to determine the quality management practices level in childcare centers in Malaysia. A study was conducted in Kedah, Penang, and Kelantan to intricate the reliability and validity of the instrument. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and item reliability analysis have been used to measure the level of reliability and authenticity of the questionnaires. Further, inter-rater reliability (IRR) test was used to obtain expert confirmation of the reliability, validity and credibility of the instrument. All the seven constructs possessed high reliability index value between 0.87–0.92. Similarly, EFA analysis  showed that there are seven dimensions exist in the QIAS instrument with factor loading ranged from 0.64–0.88. The findings also showed that the variance explained in the data is 64.46% with eigenvalue more than 1. This results reflecting that all the item are accepted with a high verification.  In addition, a very high reliability coefficient value, α=0.93 and inter-rater reliability of 91% indicated a high level of agreement and reliability among field evaluators. The results proved that this QIAS instrument had high validity and reliability and was capable to measure the quality management practices level in Malaysian childcare center.

Keywords


Quality Improvement and Accreditation System (QIAS); Reliability; Validity; Exploratory factor analysis (EFA); Inter-rater reliability (IRR)

References


Hearron, P.F., and Hildebrand, “Management of child development centers”, (5th ed). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2003.

Goetsch, D. L., and Davis, S. B., “Quality management: Introduction to total quality management for production, processing and services,” New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 2003.

Sylva, K., Siraj-Blatchford, I., Taggart, B., Sammons, P., Melhuish, E., Elliot, K. and Totsika, V., “Capturing quality on early childhood through environmental rating scales”, Early childhood Research Quarterly, vol. 21, pp. 76-92, 2006.

Burchinal, M.R., and Cryer, D., “Diversity, child care quality and developmental outcomes”, Early childhood Research Quarterly, vol.18, pp. 401- 426, 2003.

Melhuish, E., “Impact of the home learning environment on child cognitive development: Secondary analysis of data from growing up in Scotland,” Edinburg, United Kingdom: The Scottish Government, 2010.

Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I., Sylva K., Melhuish, E., Taggart, B., and Elliot, K., “Investigating the effects of pre-school provision: Using mixed methods in the EPPE research”, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 207-24, 2005.

NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, “Child care and child development: Results from the NICHD study of early child care and youth development,” New York: Guildford Press, 2005.

Report of Statistics and EPU, Retrived from: http://www.epu.gov.my/, 2000.

Harrison, L.J., “Does child care quality matter?” Family Matter, vol. 79, pp.14-25, 2008.

National Childcare Accreditation Council (NCAC), “Quality improvement and accreditation system: Quality practices guide,” (1st ed.), Australia: NCAC Inc., 2005.

Pallant, J., “SPSS Survival Manual,” (5th Ed.), Mc Graw Hill, USA, 2013.

Hair, J. J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., and Anderson, R. E., “Multivariate data analysis,” (7th ed.), Essex: Pearson Education Limited, 2014.

Awang, Z., Hui, L. S., and Zainuddin, N. F. Z., “Simple approach SEM: Structural equation modelling,” Bandar Baru Bangi: MPWS Rich Resources Sdn Bhd., 2018.

Hussin, F., Ali, J., and Noor, M. S. Z., “Research methodology & SPSS data analysis,” UUM Sintok, Kedah: UUM Press, 2014.

Creswell, J. W., “Research design : Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches,” (4th ed.), Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc, 2014.

Yong, A. G., and Pearce, S., “A beginner’s guide to factor analysis: Focusing on exploratory factor analysis”, Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 79–94, 2013.

Taherdoost, H., Sahibuddin, S., and Jalaliyoon, N., “Exploratory factor analysis: Concepts and theory”, Advances in Applied and Pure Mathematics, pp. 375–382, 2014.

Polit, D. F., Beck, T., and Owen, S. V., “Focus on study methods is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations”, Study in Nursing and Health, vol. 30, pp. 459–467, 2007.

OECD, “Starting Strong II: Early childhood education and care,” Paris: Author, 2006.

Hanafi, Z., and Ismail, S. N., “Quality improvements in preschool: From research to practice”, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 9, no.3, Special 2015, pp. 1-6, 2015.

Ismail, S. N., and Hanafi, Z., “The level of quality management practices in childcare centers by using a Quality Improvements and Accreditation System (QIAS) model”, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 9, no. 8, Special 2015, pp. 108-111, 2015.

Cresswell, J. W., “Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research,” (4th ed.), Boston, Pearson, 2012.

Zulkepli, M., Sipan, I., & Jibril, J. D., “An exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis for green affordable housing criteria instrument”, International Journal of Real Estate Studies, vol. 11 no. 4, pp. 1-13, 2017

Ismail, S. N., Omar, M. N., and Raman, A., “The authority of principals’ technology leadership in empowering teachers’ self-efficacy towards ICT use”, International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 878-885, 2021.

Cassidy, D., Hestenes, L. L., Hegde, A., Hestenes, S., and Mims, S., “Measurement of quality in preschool childcare classrooms: An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the early childhood environment rating scale-revised,” Early Childhood Research Quarterly, vol. 20, 345-36, 2005.

Henson R. K., and Roberts, J. K., “Use of exploratory factor analysis in published research common errors and some comment on improved practice”, Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 393-416, 2006.

Coakes, S. J., Steed, L., and Ong, C., “SPSS version 17.0 for Windows: Analysis without anguish,” Australia: John Wiley and Sons Publications, 2010.

Sekaran, U. and Bougie, R., “Research methods for business: A skill building approach,” (7th ed.), Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2016.

Cooper, D. R., and Schindler, P. S., “Business research methods,” (12th ed.), NY: McGraw-Hill, 2014.

Chua, Y. P., “Research methods and statistics (Book 2),” (2nd ed.), Kuala Lumpur: McGraw-Hill Education, 2012.




DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v11i3.22522

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)
p-ISSN: 2252-8822, e-ISSN: 2620-5440

View IJERE Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.