Matriculation students’ usages and its driving factors in mobile learning for chemistry

Wai Foong Lok, Mahizer Hamzah


The primary objectives of this study are to identify how Malaysian matriculation students employ mobile devices for learning Chemistry, and the driving factors that influence their use of mobile devices for learning Chemistry. A qualitative case study approach was adopted in this study, in which interviews and student journals were the main instruments used for the data collection process. The study was conducted in a matriculation college, and all students were invited to participate in the study voluntarily. A total of 17 students who were actively using mobile devices to learn Chemistry were selected for individual and face-to-face interviews. The data were analysed in a three-stage process to inductively identify the themes. The analysis revealed that matriculation students used mobile devices for referential and collaborative learning activities. They preferred to search the relevant learning resources on the web, and learn collaboratively with their peers or lecturers. Meanwhile, the driving factors of these mobile learning practices were primarily due the ability of mobile learning to overcome their learning difficulties, convenience, as well as the ability to provide a better user experience in this digital age. The findings of this study suggest that the mobile device is a viable social constructivism pedagogical tool for learning Chemistry. The lecturers and management of matriculation colleges can use the findings of this study as a basis to promote the adoption of mobile learning for Chemistry in this digital age. 


Chemistry; driving factors; mobile devices; mobile learning; usage


A. Wiyarsi, H. Sutrisno, and E. Rohaeti, “The effect of multiple representation approach on students' creative thinking skills: A case of 'Rate of Reaction' topic,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1097, 2018.

B. J. Ryan, “Integration of technology in the chemistry classroom and laboratory,” in Teaching chemistry in higher education: A festschrift in honour of Professor Tina Overton, M. K. Seery and C. McDonnell, Eds., Dublin: Creathach Press, 2019, pp. 39-54.

I. S. Oladele and O. L. Molara, “Investigation of undergraduate students’ attitude to and perception of mobile technologies for learning at Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria,” European Journal of Education Studies, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 702-715, 2017.

O. Chergui, A. Begdouri, and D. Groux-Leclet, A classification of educational mobile use for learners and teachers. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 324-330, 2017.

S. R. Sobral, "Mobile learning in higher education: A bibliometric review," International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 153-170, 2020.

H. F. El-Sofany and N. El-Haggar, "The effectiveness of using mobile learning techniques to improve learning outcomes in higher education," International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 4-17, 2020.

M. C. Borba, P. Askar, J. Engelbrecht, G. Gadanidis, S. Llinares, and M. S. Aguilar, "Blended learning, e-learning and mobile learning in mathematics education," ZDM Mathematics Education, vol. 48, pp. 589-610, 2016.

J. Ikhsan, K. H. Sugiyarto, and T. A. Astuti, “Fostering student’s critical thinking through a virtual reality laboratory,” International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 183-194, 2020.

A.-N. Lay and K. Osman, "Developing 21st century chemistry learning through designing digital games," Journal of Education in Science, Environment and Health, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 81-92, 2018.

I. Damyanov, I. and N. Tsankov, “Mobile apps in daily learning activities,” International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 133-140, 2018.

S. F. Ng, N. S. I. C. Hassan, N. H. M. Nor, and N. A. A. Malek, "The relationship between smartphone use and academic performance: A case of students in a Malaysian tertiary institution," Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 58-70, 2017.

N. Gupta, S. Garg, and K. Arora, K. “Pattern of mobile phone usage and its effects on psychological health, sleep, and academic performance in students of a medical university,” National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 132-139, 2016.

F. Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari and P. Pourghane, “College students, experiences on smart phone technology usage: A qualitative content analysis study,” The Qualitative Report, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2864-2880, 2017

B. P. Mbabazi, G. Ali, A. Geoffrey, and N. Lawrence, “Mobile devices for learning in universities: Challenges and effects of usage,” International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Science, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 1-7, 2018.

K. N. Chee, N. H. Ibrahim, N. Yahaya, J. Surif, M. S. Rosli, and M. S., M. A. Z. M. Zakaria, “A review of literature in mobile learning: A new paradigm in teaching and learning pedagogy for now and then,” Advanced Science Letters, vol. 23, pp. 7416-7419, 2017.

G. Al Murshidi, “Opportunities and challenges of mobile learning that university students encounter in the UAE,” International Research in Higher Education, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 18-37, 2017.

D. Al-Arabiat, W. F. W. Ahmad, and A. Sarlan, “The barriers to adoption of mobile learning by HEIs in Malaysia: An exploratory study,” Journal of Advanced Research Design, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 2015.

O. S. Olanrewaju and E. P. Ikuereye, “M-learning in developing countries: Challenges, remedies and benefits in instructional activities,” KIU Journal of Humanities, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 105-114, 2019.

J. P. Biddix, C. J. Chung, and H. W. Park, “Faculty use and perception of mobile Information and communication technology (m-ICT) for teaching practices,” Innovations in Education and Teaching International, vol. 53, pp. 375-387, 2016.

S. A. Ariffin, C. Glahn, M. Anshar, F. Daud, T. T. Kiong, N. H. Noordin, A. Kamsin, “Early investigation of the impact of mobile learning ethics student-generated activities for STEM subjects in a local Malaysian university context,” International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 210-218, 2020.

A. H. Atas and B. Celik, “Smartphone use of university students: Patterns, purposes, and situations,” Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 59-70, 2019.

S. Vasudeva, K. Colthorpe, and H. Ernst, “Student-initiated mobile learning in higher education,” in Proceedings of 16th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, Larnaca, Cyprus, 2017.

J. Eppard, Z. Hojeij, P. Ozdemir-Ayber, M. Rodjan-Helder, and S. Baroudi, “Using mobile learning tools in higher education: A UAE case,” International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 11, no. 13, pp. 51-69, 2019.

N. M. Nordin, M. A. Embi, H. Norman, and E. Panah, "A historical review of mobile learning research in Malaysia and its implications for Malaysia and the Asia-Pacific region.," in Mobile learning in higher education in the Asia-Pacific Region, Singapore: Springer, 2017, pp. 137-150.

J. W. Creswell and C. N. Poth, Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches, 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2017.

J. L. Campbell, C. Quincy, J. Osserman, O. K. Pedersen, Coding in-depth semistructured interviews: Problems of unitization and intercoder reliability and agreement, Sociological Methods & Research, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 294-320, 2013.

B. N. Morat, A. Shaari, M. J. Z. Abidin, and A. Abdullah, “Youtube within ESL classroom: Exploring an instructor’s and her learners’ experiences concerning the authenticity of language and technology use,” Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, pp. 173-196, 2017.

J. Lipuma and J. Reich, “Categorization of video used in a digital learning online professional learning exchange for professional development by the State of New Jersey,” in Education and information technology annual 2017: A selection of AACE award papers, T. Bastiaens and G. Marks, Eds., Waynesboro, NC: AACE, 2017, pp. 19-25.

B. Patten, I. A. Sanchez, and B. Tangney, “Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices,” Computers & Education, vol. 46, pp. 294-308, 2006.

D. Parsons and K. MacCallum, "A learning theory rubric for evaluating mobile learning activities," International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 24-38, 2017.

G. Ali, B. P. Mbabazi, N. Lawrence, and A. Geoffrey, “Use of mobile devices by students to support learning in universities: A case of Muni University,” International Journal of Research in Engineering & Technology, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 69-80, 2017.

H. Hazwanie, D. W. K. Chong, H. M. Er, D. Pran Kishore, P. S. Wong, M. S. Lee, M. K. Maharajan, E. L. Lee, and H. Z. Baloch, “Student's perceptions of live online virtual e-problem based learning (LOVE-PBL) using google hangouts,” Education in Medicine Journal, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 31-39, 2017.

Z. Karabatzaki, A. Stathopoulou, G. Kokkalia, E. Dimitriou, P. I. Loukeri, A. Economou, and A. Drigas, “Mobile application tools for students in secondary education. An evaluation study,” International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 142-161, 2018.

R. Kaliisa, E. Palmer, and J. Milner, “Mobile learning in higher education: A comparative analysis of developed and developing country contexts,” British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 546-561, 2019.

M. M. Baharom, N. A. Atan, M. S. Rosli, S. Yusof, and M. Z. A. Hamid, “Integration of science learning apps based on inquiry based science education (IBSE) in enhancing students science process skills (SPS),” International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 95-108, 2020.

Y. Qiao, Y. Tang, and K. F. Hew, “Student cognitive presence in small group collaboration facilitated by mobile instant messaging,” International Journal of Educational Technology and Learning, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 14-24, 2018.

R. M. R. Hussain and K. K. Al Saaidi, K. K, “Students as designers of e-book for authentic assessment,” Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 23-48, 2019.

O. F. Marzouki, M. K. Idrissi, and S. Bennani, S, “Effects of social constructivist mobile learning environments on knowledge acquisition: A meta-analysis,” International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 18-39, 2017.

K. N. Chee, N. Yahaya, and N. H. Ibrahim, “Factors of students’ performance based on cognitive level in a mobile learning environment,” International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 190–212, 2018.

A. A. Ziden, M. Rosli, T. Gunasegaran, and S. N. Azizan, “Perceptions and experience in mobile learning via SMS: A case study of distance education students in a Malaysian Public University,” International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 11(1), 116-132, 2017.

S. S. Oyelere, J. Suhonen, and E. Sutinen, “M-learning: A new paradigm of learning ICT in Nigeria,” International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 35-44, 2016.

L. Todoranova, R. Nacheva, V. Sulov, and B. Penchev, “A model for mobile learning integration in higher education based on students’ expectations,” International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 171-182, 2020

H. J. Kim and J. Y. Rha, “Predicting the drivers of the intention to use mobile learning in South Korea,” International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 116-132, 2018.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)
p-ISSN: 2252-8822, e-ISSN: 2620-5440

View IJERE Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.