Cyberchondria in Filipino Teacher Education Students

Reynold Padagas, Butch Stephen Duay, Jill Dalisay

Abstract


    

The Internet-dense ecosystem has dramatically influenced the health-seeking behaviors of any population group. Likewise, exposure to a large amount of information increases health anxiety resulting in cyberchondria. This cross-sectional research study examined the level of cyberchondria among 179 teacher education students. Generally, the findings revealed that the students' overall level of cyberchondria was moderate, including its subscales, namely, excessiveness, distress, reassurance, and compulsion subscales. However, relatively higher correlations existed between excessiveness and compulsion and between distress and compulsion. Notably, gender and program have a very weak relationship with cyberchondria subscales. Meanwhile, the weakest association was between the programs enrolled by the students and cyberchondria subscales. Interestingly, students' age and year level have slightly higher but weak associations to all cyberchondria subscales, especially excessiveness and distress subscales. As an intervention, an interdisciplinary collaboration between teacher education programs and the health-related courses is recommended to promote awareness about cyberchondria, its prevention, and management.

 


Keywords


Cyberchondria; health-seeking behaviors; teacher education; teacher education students; technology

References


M.J. Sanchez. “Philippines: Number of Internet Users 2020” Statista, 2021. https://www.statista.com/statistics/221179/internet-users-philippines/.

M.R.M. Hechanova & R. Ortega-Go. “The Good, The Bad and The Ugly: Internet Use, Outcomes and the Role of Regulation in the Philippines”. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 63(1), 2014. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1681-4835.2014.tb00453.x

R. Kellner. Hypochondriasis and somatisation. JAMA. 258(19):2718-22, 1987.

J. Mueller. “Web Use for Symptom Appraisal of Physical Health Conditions: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Medical Internet Research vol. 19,6 e202. 13 Jun. 2017, doi:10.2196/jmir.6755

R.W. White & E. Horvitz. “Cyberchondria: Studies of the Escalation of Medical Concerns in Web Search” Microsoft Research, 2019. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/publication/cyberchondria-studies-of-the-escalation-of-medical-concerns-in-web-search/.

C.L. Ventola. Social Media and Health Care Professionals: Benefits, Risks, and Best Practices. P & T : A Peer-Reviewed Journal For Formulary Management, 39(7), 491–520, 2014.

V. Starcevic & D. Berle. “Cyberchondria: Towards a Better Understanding of Excessive Health-Related Internet Use”. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 13(2), 205–213, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1586/ern.12.162

M. Aiken & G. Kirwan. “The Psychology of Cyberchondria and Cyberchondria by Proxy” Cyberpsychology and New Media: A Thematic Reader. In: Power A, Kriwan G, editors. London and New York: Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis Group; pp. 158–69, 2014.

R.W. White & E. Horvitz. “Cyberchondria: Studies of the Escalation of Medical Concerns in Web Search” Microsoft Research, 2019. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/publication/cyberchondria-studies-of-the-escalation-of-medical-concerns-in-web-search/.

I.D. Labucay. "Patterns of Internet usage in the Philippines." The Internet and the Google age: Prospects and perils, 27, 2014.

E. McElroy, et al. The CSS-12: Development and validation of a short-form version of the cyberchondria severity scale. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 22(5), pp.330-335, 2019.

Y. Leykin, et al. “Are Consumers of Internet Health Information “Cyberchondriacs”? Characteristics of 24,965 Users of a Depression Screening Site”. Depression and Anxiety, 29(1), 71–77, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20848

G.J.G. Asmundson, et al. “Health Anxiety: Conceptual, Diagnostic, and Epidemiological Issues” In G.J.G. Asmundson, S. Taylor, & B.J. Cox (Eds.), Health anxiety: Clinical and Research Perspectives on Hypochondriasis and Related Disorders (pp. 3-21), 2001. London: Wiley.

T.A. Fergus & M.M. Spada. “Cyberchondria: Examining Relations with Problematic Internet Use and Metacognitive Beliefs”. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 24(6), 1322–1330, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2102

M. Köhler, et al. "Bias by Medical Drama. Reflections of Stereotypic Images of Physicians in the Context of Contemporary Medical Dramas." In Handbook of Popular Culture and Biomedicine, pp. 337-349. Springer, Cham, 2019.

V. Starcevic & E. Aboujaoude. “Cyberchondria, Cyberbullying, Cybersuicide, Cybersex: "New" Psychopathologies for The 21st Century?” World Psychiatry : Official Journal Of The World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 14(1), 97–100, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20195

C.C. Vâjâean & A. Baban. “Emotional And Behavioral Consequences of Online Health Information-Seeking: The Role of Ehealth Literacy” Cognition, Brain, Behavior, 19(4), 327–345, 2015.

M. Akhtar & T. Fatima. “Exploring Cyberchondria and Worry about Health Among Individuals with No Diagnosed Medical Condition” JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 70(1), 90–95, 2020. https://doi.org/10.5455/JPMA.8682

K. Singh, et al. “Health Anxiety and Internet Use: A Thematic Analysis” Cyberpsychology, 10(2), 2016. https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2016-2-4

Sigma Plus Statistiek. “SPSS – What is it?” SPSS Tutorials, n.d. Retrieved from https://www.spss- tutorials.com/spss-what-is-it/

V. Starcevic, et al. “Cyberchondria in the Time of the COVID‐19 Pandemic” Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies. Jan;3(1):53-62, 2021.

C. Marino, et al. Testing the Italian version of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale and a metacognitive model of cyberchondria. Clinical psychology & psychotherapy, 27(4), pp.581-596, 2020.

V. Starcevic, et al. “Cyberchondria and its Relationships with Related Constructs: A Network Analysis” Psychiatric quarterly, 90(3), pp.491-505, 2019.

N. Jokić-Begić, et al. The development and validation of the Short Cyberchondria Scale (SCS). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 41(4), pp.662-676, 2019.

R.D. McMullan, et al. The relationships between health anxiety, online health information seeking, and cyberchondria: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of affective disorders, 245, pp.270-278, 2019.

Wauters, et al. “Study on Cloud and Service Oriented Architectures for E-Government for Deloitte”. 63(4), 75–77, 2012. https://doi.org/10.4103/jpgm.JPGM

M. Vismara, et al. “Is Cyberchondria a New Transdiagnostic Digital Compulsive Syndrome? A Systematic Review of the Evidence” Comprehensive Psychiatry, 99, 152167, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2020.152167

H. Zheng, et al. "Cyberchondria: A Systematic Review", Internet Research, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1108/INTR-03-2020-0148

S. Laato, et al. “What Drives Unverified Information Sharing and Cyberchondria During the COVID-19 Pandemic?” European Journal of Information Systems, 29(3), 288-305, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/0960085x.2020.1770632

T. Lewis. “Seeking Health Information on the Internet: Lifestyle Choice or Bad Attack of Cyberchondria?” Media, Culture & Society, 28(4), 521–539, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443706065027

S.M. Jungmann & M. Witthöft. “Health Anxiety, Cyberchondria, and Coping in the Current COVID-19 Pandemic: Which Factors are Related to Coronavirus Anxiety?” Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 73, 102239, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102239

M. Bachl. “Online Health Information Seeking in Europe: Do Digital Divides Persist?” In Studies in Communication | Media (Vol. 5), 2016. https://doi.org/10.5771/2192-4007-2016-4-427

R.C. Gibler, et al. “The Role of Pain Catastrophizing in Cyberchondria Among Emerging Adults” Psychology, Health & Medicine, 24(10), 1267-1276, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2019.1605087

E.R. Doherty-Torstrick, et al. Cyberchondria: Parsing Health Anxiety from Online Behavior. Psychosomatics, 57(4), 390-400, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2016.02.002

P. Kakodkar, et al. “Evaluating the Cyberchondria Construct among Computer Engineering Students in Pune (India) Using Cyberchondria Severity Scale (CSS-15)”. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 23(3), 117, 2019. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijoem.ijoem_217_19

E. Ivanova & S. Karabeliova. “Elaborating on Internet Addiction and Cyberchondria – Relationships, Direct and Mediated Effects”. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 5(1), 127–144, 2020. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs20141.127.144

C.R.L. Boot & F.J. Meijman. “The Public and The Internet: Multifaceted Drives for Seeking Health Information” Health Informatics Journal, 16(2), 145–156, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1177/1460458210364786

B. Bajcar & J. Babiak. “Self-Esteem and Cyberchondria: The Mediation Effects of Health Anxiety and Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms in a Community Sample” Current Psychology, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00216-x

A.D. Batigun, et al. “Cyberchondria Scale (CS): Development, Validity and Reliability Study”. Dusunen Adam, 31(2), 148–162, 2018. https://doi.org/10.5350/DAJPN2018310203

W. Jacobs et al. “Health Information Seeking in the Digital Age: An Analysis of Health Information Seeking Behavior among US Adults” Cogent Social Sciences, 3:1, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2017.1302785

A.H. Bati, et al. “Health Anxiety and Cyberchondria Among Ege University Health Science Students”. Nurse Education Today, 71, 169-173, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2018.09.029




DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v11i3.22287

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)
p-ISSN: 2252-8822, e-ISSN: 2620-5440

View IJERE Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.