Road to financial independence: The management of life skills program for students with disabilities

Widia Murni Wijaya, Liah Siti Syarifah


Starting from the concern of special high schools to the future of graduates with disabilities and fulfilling the role of schools to prepare for the independence of graduates with disabilities, this study aims to explore the management of the life skills program organized by special high schools at the senior level. The case study approach was carried out by employing observations, interviews, and documentation techniques. The respondents involved in this study were the principal, teachers, graduates, parents, local government, and the company. These respondents involved themselves in efforts to support actively and their commitment to the success of the program. The results indicated that the life skills program was well managed as it successfully delivered graduates to work in the company and be financially independent. The commitment of the school with the company and parents to enhance the independence of graduates with disabilities was through the life skills program to provide them with some valuable skills.


Disability; Life skills; Partnership; School improvement; School programs


UNESCO, “Education for People and Planet: Creating Sustainable Futures for All, EFA global education monitoring report 2016,” Paris, 2016.

M. S. Khine and S. Areepattamannil, “Non-cognitive Skills and Factors in Educational Attainment,” Sense, Rotterdam, 2016.

W. Cunningham and P. Villaseñor, “Employer Voices, Employer Demands, and Implications for Public Skills Development Policy Connecting the Labor and Education Sectors”, World Bank Research Observer, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 102–134, 2016.

P. Darvas, et al., “Stepping up Skills in Urban Ghana: Snapshot of the STEP Skills Measurement Survey,” DC: World Bank, Washington, 2017.

I. D. Aprilia, et al., “Life Skill Educational Management Based on Vocational for Students with Disabilities to be Ready for Work”, in the 2nd International Conference on Research of Educational Administration and Management, 2018.

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional [Ministry of Education], “Pengembangan Model Pendidikan Kecakapan Hidup [Development of Life Skills Education Models]”, Pusat Kurikulum Balitbang Depdiknas, Jakarta, 2004.

M. Almlund, et al., “Personality Psychology and Economics”, in Hanushek, E.A., Machin, S., and Woessmann, L, Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier, 2011, pp. 1–181.

M. Bassi, et al., “Disconnected: Skills, Education, and Employment in Latin America, Inter-American Development Bank,” Washington, 2012.

E. Prihatin, et al., “School Synergy with Government, Community and Business/ Industry: an Optimization of Life Skill Educational Management for Students with Disabilities,” Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 334-343, 2019.

J. Judge, et al., (2010), “Activity, aging, and retirement: The views of a group of Scottish people with intellectual disabilities”, Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, Vol 7, pp. 295–301, 2010.

N. Blackman, “Supporting people with learning disabilities through a bereavement”, Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 21, pp. 199–202, 2016.

P. Rodríguez, et al., “Diseño, aplicación y evaluación de un programa de educación para la muerte dirigido a personas adultas con discapacidad intelectual [Design, application and evaluation of an education program for the death addressed to persons with intellectual disability],” Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, vol. 63, pp. 199–219, 2013.

D. Hendricks, “Employment and adults with autism spectrum disorders: Challenges and strategies for success,” Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, vol. 32, pp. 125–134, 2010.

Persons with disabilities Act, Indonesia, 2016.

A. Holwerda, et al., “Predictors of work participation of young adults with mild intellectual disabilities,” Research in Developmental Disabilities, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1982–1990, 2013.

J. Mansell and J. Beadle-Brown, “Active support: Enabling and empowering people with intellectual disabilities,” Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London, 2012.

J. W. Creswell, “Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches,” SAGE, London, 2009.

S. R. Stapleton, “Teacher participatory action research (TPAR): A methodological framework for political teacher research,” Action Research, 2018.

P. Hallinger, “A conceptual framework for systematic reviews of research in educational leadership and management,” Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 126-149, 2013.

T. A. Quigney and J. R. Studer, “Working with Students with Disabilities: A Guide for School Counselors, New York: Routledge, 2016.

K. King and R. Palmer, “Education and Skills Post 2015: What Evidence, Whose Perspectives?,” in NORRAG Discussion Paper No. 6 in Geneva, 2013, Network for International Policies and Cooperation in Education and Training, Geneva, 2013.

S. Yamada, “Post-Education-for-All and Sustainable Development Paradigm: Structural Change and Diversifying Actors and Norms,” Emerald Publishing, London, 2016.

J. Ramawickrama, et al., “Quality of Work Life, Job Satisfaction, and the Facets of the Relationship between the Two Constructs,” International Business Research, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 167, 2017.

J. F. Lukas, et al., “Job satisfaction among disabled people in the sheltered workshop: Differential analysis,” Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 31, pp. 1174– 1185, 2018.

R. L. Dodds and G. H. S. Singer, “Parent‐to‐Parent support providers: How recruits are identified”, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 31, pp. 435– 444, 2018.

Z. Rossetti, et al., “Parent involvement in meaningful post-school experiences for young adults with IDD and pervasive support needs,” Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, vol. 54, pp. 260–272, 2016.

S. Flynn, et al., “Effectiveness of Active Support for adults with intellectual disability in residential settings: Systematic review and meta‐analysis,” Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 31, pp. 983– 998, 2018.

National Education Standards Board, “Standar Kompetensi dan Kompetensi Dasar SMALB [Standard and Basic Competencies of Special High School],” Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta, 2006.

P. Griffin, et al., “Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills,” Springer, London, 2011.

P. K. Maulik, et al., “Prevalence of intellectual disability: A meta-analysis of population-based studies,” Research in Developmental Disabilities, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 419–436, 2011.

S. MacRae, et al., “Diabetes in people with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review of the literature,” Research in Developmental Disabilities, vol. 47, pp. 352–374, 2015.

J. A. Levin and A. Datnow, “The principal role in data-driven decision making: Using case-study data to develop multi-mediator models of educational reform,” School Effectiveness and School Improvement, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 79–201, 2012.

P. Benoliel, “Principals’ boundary activities and school violence: The mediating role of school management teams,” Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 2018.

T. Bush and D. Glover, “Distributed leadership in action: Leading high-performing leadership teams in English schools,” School Leadership & Management, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 21–36, 2012.

J. Sun, “Conceptualizing the critical path linked by teacher commitment,” Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 597–624, 2015.

I. Berkovich and O. Eyal, “Emotional reframing as a mediator of the relationships between transformational school leadership and teachers’ motivation and commitment,” Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 450–468, 2017.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)
p-ISSN: 2252-8822, e-ISSN: 2620-5440

View IJERE Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.