Sustainability Engagement and Commitment in Eco-Campus Activities of Prospective Pre-Service Teachers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)

Hanifah Mahat, Nasir Nayan, Mohmadisa Hashim, Yazid Saleh, Saiyidatina Balkhis Norkhaidi, Ellyn Normelani, Yulian Firmana Arifin, Nasruddin Nasruddin, Norma Yuni Kartika, Rosalina Kumalawati


This study was conducted to confirm the instrument of sustainability engagement and commitment in eco-campus activities of prospective pre-service. Respondents consisted of 500 prospective pre-service in Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia who were selected using stratified sampling techniques. The variables studied or the factors generated from Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) of this study include knowledge, attitude, engagement, and commitment. Data were analysed descriptively to obtain the reliability of the Cronbach's alpha value and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to obtain a four-factor solution using SPSS 22 and AMOS 20 software. The results of the analysis showed that the Cronbach's alpha value was in the high classification of more than 0.80. The results of the CFA analysis for the measurement model showed that the four-factor solution was compatible and acceptable based on the recommended fit indices (CMIN=214.073, DF=49, CMIN/DF=4.369, p=.000, GFI=.941, CFI=.971, TLI=.961, RMSEA=.082). Therefore, the measurement model of 36 items developed was suitable to be used to measure the level of sustainability engagement and commitment in eco-campus activities of prospective pre-service in Malaysia.


Knowledge; Attitude; Engagement; Commitment; Eco-campus; Students; Pre-service teachers


Martin-Ortegaa, J., Mesa-Juradob, M. A., Pineda-Vazquezb, M. & Novo, P. (2019). Nature commodification: ‘a necessary evil’? An analysis of the views of environmental professionals on ecosystem services-based approaches. Ecosystem Services, 37, 1-11.

Hanifah, M., & Shahrudin, I. (2016). Education for sustainable development in Malaysia: A study of teacher and student awareness. Geografia, 12(6), 77-88.

Cieges, R. & Gineitiene. (2006). The role of universities in promoting sustainability. Engineering Economics, 3(48), 56–62.

Abd Aziz, R., Tengku Sarina Aini, T. K., & Yusmini, M. Y. (2016). Pengintegrasian Pendidikan Islam dengan Pendidikan Alam Sekitar di sekolah: Analisis terhadap adaptasi pendekatan integrasi kurikulum holistik. Jurnal Usuluddin, 44(2016), 117–139.

UNESCO. (2007). The UN Decade for Education for Sustainable Development (DESD 2005–2014): The first two years. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

Harifah Mohd Noor, Marja Azlima, & Rosmiza M. Z. (2018). Aktiviti berbasikal: Pemangkin kelestarian kampus. Geografia: Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 14(3), 85-100.

Van Weenen H. (2000). Towards a vision of a sustainable university. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 1(1), 20-24.

Hamon, L.S., Aldaz,C. B., Pomeda, J.R., Fernandez, F.S., & De Navarrete, F.C.F (2017). From ecocity to Eco campus: Sustainability policies in university campuses. International Conference on Urban Regeneration and Sustainability, 12(3), 541-551.

Pritchard, R. (2018). Revealed preference methods for studying bicycle route choice: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(3), 470.

Dawe, G. F. M., Vetter, A. & Martin, S. (2004). An overview of ecological foot printing and other tools and their application to the development of sustainability process: Audit and methodology at Holme Lacy College, UK. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 5(4), 340-371.

Er, A., & Karudan, R. (2016). Promoting campus sustainability: A conceptual framework for the assessment of campus. Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 11(2), 36–49.

Rosa Malinda, M. (2015). Development of sustainable campus landscape criteria: An evaluation UPSI as a green campus and proposed sustainable campus landscape design for Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah Campus. Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Noor, H. M., Azlima, M., & Rosmiza, M. Z. (2018). Aktiviti berbasikal: Pemangkin kelestarian kampus. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 3(14), 85–100.

Universiti Malaysia Sabah. (2013). Eco-Campus Blueprint.

Nurul Fadilah, Mohd Nawi & Er Ah Choy. (2017). Campus Sustainability: A case study in Universiti Malaysia Sabah. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, 5, 113-134.

Jamilah Ahmad, Hasrina Mustafa, Hamidah Abd Hamid & Juliana Abdul Wahab. (2011). Pengetahuan, sikap dan amalan masyarakat Malaysia terhadap isu alam sekitar. AKADEMIKA, 81(3), 103-115.

Zelazna, A., Bojar, M. & Bojar, E. (2020). Corporate social responsibility towards the environment in Lublin Region, Poland: A comparative study of 2009 and 2019. Sustainability 2020, 12, 1-13.

Lewin, K. (1942). Field theory and learning. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 41(2), 215–242.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.

Brim, O.G, & Ryff, C.D. (1980). On the properties of life events. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim (Eds.). Life span development and behavior (pp.368-388). New York: New York Academic Press.

Chawla, L. (1999). Life paths into effective environmental action. Journal of Environmental Education, 31(1), 15–26

Palmer, J. A. & Suggate, J. (1996). Influences and experiences affecting the pro-environmental behavior of educators. Environmental Education Research, 2(1), 109–121.

Tanner, T. (1980). Significant life experiences: A new research area in environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education, 11(4), 20–24.

Shuman, D. K. & Ham, H. H. (1997). Toward a theory of Commitment to Environmental Education Teaching. The Journal of Environment Education, 28(2), 25-32.

Hanifah Mahat, Yazid Saleh, Mohmadisa Hashim & Nasir Nayan. (2016). Model development on awareness of education for sustainable schools’ development in Malaysia. Indonesian Journal of Geography, 48(1), 37-46.

Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a meta-analytic review. Journal Social Psychology, 40(4), 71–99.

Gotch, C. M., & Hall, T. (2004). Understanding nature-related behaviors among children through a Theory of Reasoned Action approach. Environmental Education Research, 20, 157–177.

Harland, P., Staats, H., & Wilke, H. A. M. (1999). Explaining pro environmental intention and behavior by Personal norms and the Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 29, 2505-2528.

Hsu, S. J., & Roth, R. E. (1998). An assessment of environmental literacy and analysis of predictors of responsible environmental behavior held by secondary teachers in the Hualien area of Taiwan. Environmental Education Research, 4(3), 229–249.

Ko, A. C., & Lee, J. C. K. (2003). Teachers’ perceptions of teaching environmental issues within the science curriculum: A Hong Kong perspective. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 12(3), 187–204.

Zint, M. (2002). Comparing three attitude-behavior theories for predicting science teachers’ intentions. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(9), 819–844.

Nurul Fadilah, M. N., & Choy, E. A. (2018). Campus Sustainability: A Case Study in Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, 1(5), 113–124.

Norazah Mohd Suki, Norbayah Mohd Suki, Iftekhar Amin Chowdhury & Irma Wani Othman. (2015). Campus Sustainability: Does Student Engagement with Eco-Campus. Retrieved from

Norfadillah Derahim, Halimaton Saadiah Hashim, Noraziah Ali & Sarah Aziz. (2016). UKM sebagai kampus lestari: Tinjauan awal pengetahuan, kesedaran dan penglibatan pelajar dan kakitangan di Kampus UKM Bangi. GEOGRAFIA OnlineTM Malaysia Journal of Society and Space, 8(8), 76 – 90.

Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., Anderson, R. & Tatham, R. (2006). Multivariate data analysis. (6th ed). New Jersey: Pearson Educational International.

Babbie, E. (1992). The Practice of Social Research. CA: Wadsworth, Inc.

Yusrizal. (2008). Pengujian validitas konstruk dengan menggunakan analisis faktor [Construct validity testing using factor analysis]. Jurnal Tabularasa PPS Unimed, 5(1), 73-92.

Bartholomew, D., Knotts, M., & Moustaki, I. (2011). Latent variable models and factor analysis: A unified approach (3rd ed.). West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons.

Child, D. (2006). The essentials of factor analysis (3rd ed.). New York, USA: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Zhongfeng & Juan. (2015). The integration of EFA and CFA: One method of evaluating the construct validity. Global Journal of Human-Social Science Research, 15(6), 1-6.

Yong, A.G. and Pearce, S. (2013). a beginner’s guide to factor analysis: Focusing on exploratory factor analysis. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9, 79-94.

Bryne, B. M. (2010). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Anderson, J. & Gerbing, D. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.

Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. 1981. Evaluating structural equation models with unobserved variable and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39–50.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)
p-ISSN: 2252-8822, e-ISSN: 2620-5440

View IJERE Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.