Graduate School Student’s Self-Efficacy in Online Learning in the Midst of the COVID-19 Pandemic

Rommel Royce Cadapan, Darin Jan Tindowen, Marie Jean Mendezabal, Pyrene Quilang


The COVID-19 pandemic brought drastic changes in the graduation education. One of the most pressing concerns that graduate education students experience is their adjustment to the online learning modality. This study was conducted to determine their self-efficacy in online learning. A descriptive method of research was employed among 147 graduate school students in Northern Philippines. Results revealed students have high level of self-efficacy towards online learning. Despite their struggles and challenges in online classroom especially along social interactions and communications with their classmates and teachers, still, they are eager to finish respective degree especially that they are confident in the use of their learning management system. In addition, their current level of self-efficacy in online learning varies according to their age, occupation, and online courses previously enrolled.


Graduate Education; Graduate School Students; Online Learning; Pandemic; Self-Efficacy


A. Mohmmed, B. Khidhir, A. Nazeer and V. Vijayan, "Emergency remote teaching during Coronavirus pandemic: the current trend and future directive at Middle East College Oman", Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, vol. 5, no. 3, 2020. Available: 10.1007/s41062-020-00326-7.

Ancho, Inero. “Graduate Education during COVID-19 Pandemic: Inputs to Policy Formulation in the New Normal.” Recoletos Multidisciplinary Research Journal, vol. 8, no. 2, 31 Dec. 2020, pp. 87–105, 10.32871/rmrj2008.02.07. Accessed 7 Jan. 2021.

Rahiem, Maila D. H. “The Emergency Remote Learning Experience of University Students in Indonesia amidst the COVID-19 Crisis.” International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, vol. 19, no. 6, 30 June 2020, pp. 1–26, 10.26803/ijlter.19.6.1.

R. Michael, M. Levi-Keren, M. Efrati-Virtzer, and R. G. Cinamon, “The contribution of field experience in special education programs and personal variables to the teaching self-efficacy of higher education students,” Teacher Development, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 223–241, 2020.

B. Bai and J. Wang, "The role of growth mindset, self-efficacy and intrinsic value in self-regulated learning and English language learning achievements", Language Teaching Research, p. 136216882093319, 2020. Available: 10.1177/1362168820933190.

P. Nga Thi Tuyet, "Can I teach these students? A case study of Vietnamese teachers’ self-efficacy in relation to teaching English as a Foreign Language", Arab World English Journal, no. 254, pp. 1-270, 2020. Available: 10.24093/awej/th.254.

M. Renko, A. Bullough and S. Saeed, "How do resilience and self-efficacy relate to entrepreneurial intentions in countries with varying degrees of fragility? A six-country study", International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship, p. 026624262096045, 2020. Available: 10.1177/0266242620960456.

C. Wretman, S. Zimmerman, K. Ward and P. Sloane, "Measuring Self-Efficacy and Attitudes for Providing Mouth Care in Nursing Homes", Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1316-1321, 2020. Available: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.02.007.

P. Ifinedo, "Examining students' intention to continue using blogs for learning: Perspectives from technology acceptance, motivational, and social-cognitive frameworks", Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 72, pp. 189-199, 2017. Available: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.049.

A. Alhadabi and A. Karpinski, "Grit, self-efficacy, achievement orientation goals, and academic performance in University students", International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 519-535, 2019. Available: 10.1080/02673843.2019.1679202.

A. Alghamdi, A. Karpinski, A. Lepp and J. Barkley, "Online and face-to-face classroom multitasking and academic performance: Moderated mediation with self-efficacy for self-regulated learning and gender", Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 102, pp. 214-222, 2020. Available: 10.1016/j.chb.2019.08.018.

R. Rafiola, P. Setyosari, C. Radjah and M. Ramli, "The Effect of Learning Motivation, Self-Efficacy, and Blended Learning on Students’ Achievement in The Industrial Revolution 4.0", International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), vol. 15, no. 08, p. 71, 2020. Available: 10.3991/ijet.v15i08.12525.

H. Haerazi and L. Irawan, "The Effectiveness of ECOLA Technique to Improve Reading Comprehension in Relation to Motivation and Self-Efficacy", International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), vol. 15, no. 01, p. 61, 2020. Available: 10.3991/ijet.v15i01.11495.

I. Fauzi and I. Sastra Khusuma, "Teachers’ Elementary School in

Online Learning of COVID-19 Pandemic Conditions", Jurnal Iqra' : Kajian Ilmu Pendidikan, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 58-70, 2020. Available: 10.25217/ji.v5i1.914.

H. Crompton and D. Burke, "The use of mobile learning in higher education: A systematic review", Computers & Education, vol. 123, pp. 53-64, 2018. Available: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.04.007.

F. García-Peñalvo, Á. Fidalgo-Blanco and M. Sein-Echaluce, "An adaptive hybrid MOOC model: Disrupting the MOOC concept in higher education", Telematics and Informatics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 1018-1030, 2018. Available: 10.1016/j.tele.2017.09.012.

M. Kebritchi, A. Lipschuetz and L. Santiague, "Issues and Challenges for Teaching Successful Online Courses in Higher Education", Journal of Educational Technology Systems, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 4-29, 2017. Available: 10.1177/0047239516661713.

R. Rasmitadila et al., "The Perceptions of Primary School Teachers of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic Period: A Case Study in Indonesia", Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 90, 2020. Available: 10.29333/ejecs/388.

I. Blau, T. Shamir-Inbal, and O. Avdiel, “How does the pedagogical design of a technology-enhanced collaborative academic course promote digital literacies, self-regulation, and perceived learning of students?,” The Internet and Higher Education, vol. 45, p. 100722, 2020.

M. A. Almaiah, M. M. Alamri, and W. Al-Rahmi, “Applying the UTAUT Model to Explain the Students’ Acceptance of Mobile Learning System in Higher Education,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 174673–174686, 2019.

A. Chavoshi and H. Hamidi, “Social, individual, technological and pedagogical factors influencing mobile learning acceptance in higher education: A case from Iran,” Telematics and Informatics, vol. 38, pp. 133–165, 2019.

M. Koretsky, A. Magana, and L. Shuman, “Innovation through Propagation: Using Technology to Enhance Learning and Propagation,” 2016 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition Proceedings.

R. Huerta-Álvarez, J. J. Cambra-Fierro, and M. Fuentes-Blasco, “The interplay between social media communication, brand equity and brand engagement in tourist destinations: An analysis in an emerging economy,” Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, vol. 16, p. 100413, 2020.

M. H. Albahiri and A. A. Alhaj, “Role of visual element in spoken English discourse: implications for YouTube technology in EFL classrooms,” The Electronic Library, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 531–544, 2020.

H.-C. Wei and C. Chou, “Online learning performance and satisfaction: do perceptions and readiness matter?,” Distance Education, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 48–69, 2020.

H. Baber, “Determinants of Students’ Perceived Learning Outcome and Satisfaction in Online Learning during the Pandemic of COVID19,” Journal of Education and e-Learning Research, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 285–292, 2020.

W. E. Rayburn and A. Ramaprasad, “Three Strategies for the Use of Distance Learning Technology in Higher Education,” Web-Based Instructional Learning, pp. 27–42.

E. R. Hewson, “Students’ Emotional Engagement, Motivation and Behaviour Over the Life of an Online Course: Reflections on Two Market Research Case Studies,” Journal of Interactive Media in Education, vol. 2018, no. 1, 2018.

T. Soffer and R. Nachmias, “Effectiveness of learning in online academic courses compared with face-to-face courses in higher education,” Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 534–543, 2018.

S. Ghaderizefreh and M. L. Hoover, “Student Satisfaction with Online Learning in a Blended Course,” International Journal for Digital Society, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1393–1398, 2018.

M.-L. Hung and C. Chou, “Students' perceptions of instructors' roles in blended and online learning environments: A comparative study,” Computers & Education, vol. 81, pp. 315–325, 2015.

C. J. Brown, “Flipping the ESL/EFL Academic Reading Classroom: A Group Leader Discussion Activity,” Innovations in Flipping the Language Classroom, pp. 147–168, 2017.

E. Alqurashi, “Self-Efficacy In Online Learning Environments: A Literature Review,” Contemporary Issues in Education Research (CIER), vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2016.

M. Zee and H. M. Koomen, “Teacher Self-Efficacy and Its Effects on Classroom Processes, Student Academic Adjustment, and Teacher Well-Being,” Review of Educational Research, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 981–1015, 2016.

S.-C. Lee, J.-M. Su, S.-B. Tsai, T.-L. Lu, and W. Dong, “A comprehensive survey of government auditors’ self-efficacy and professional development for improving audit quality,” SpringerPlus, vol. 5, no. 1, 2016.

K. M. Hamdan, A. M. Al-Bashaireh, Z. Zahran, A. Al-Daghestani, S. AL-Habashneh, and A. M. Shaheen, “University students' interaction, Internet self-efficacy, self-regulation and satisfaction with online education during pandemic crises of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2),” International Journal of Educational Management, vol. ahead-of-print, no. ahead-of-print, 2021.

V. Balakrishnan and C. L. Gan, “Students’ learning styles and their effects on the use of social media technology for learning,” Telematics and Informatics, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 808–821, 2016.

Q. A. Blanco, M. L. Carlota, A. J. Nasibog, B. Rodriguez, X. V. Saldaña, E. C. Vasquez, and F. Gagani, “Probing on the Relationship between Students' Self-Confidence and Self-Efficacy while engaging in Online Learning amidst COVID-19,” Journal La Edusci, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 16–25, 2020.

“The Impact of COVID-19 on Graduate Education,” Council of Graduate Schools. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 05-Mar-2021].

C. Rapanta, L. Botturi, P. Goodyear, L. Guàrdia, and M. Koole, “Online University Teaching During and After the Covid-19 Crisis: Refocusing Teacher Presence and Learning Activity,” Postdigital Science and Education, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 923–945, 2020.

S. K. Shahzad, J. Hussain, N. Sadaf, S. Sarwat, U. Ghani, and R. Saleem, “Impact of Virtual Teaching on ESL Learners' Attitudes under Covid-19 Circumstances at Post Graduate Level in Pakistan,” English Language Teaching, vol. 13, no. 9, p. 1, 2020.

I. Ancho, “Graduate Education during COVID-19 Pandemic: Inputs to Policy Formulation in the New Normal,” Recoletos Multidisciplinary Research Journal, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 87–105, 2020.

G. H. Gay and K. Betts, “From Discussion Forums to eMeetings:

Integrating High Touch Strategies to Increase Student Engagement, Academic Performance, and Retention in Large Online Courses,” Online Learning, vol. 24, no. 1, 2020.


J. Janssen and P. A. Kirschner, “Applying collaborative cognitive load theory to computer-supported collaborative learning: towards a research agenda,” Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 783–805, 2020.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)
p-ISSN: 2252-8822, e-ISSN: 2620-5440

View IJERE Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.