Various Corrective Feedback Types in Collaborative vs. Individual Writing Conditions

Maryam Soleimani, Sima Modirkhamene


One of the important issues in EFL instruction is the idea of eliminating students’ linguistic errors through providing corrective feedback (CF). Accordingly, this study investigated the effect of various CF types (i.e., comprehensive, selective, and no feedback) on advanced EFL learners’ writing in different writing conditions (i.e., individual & collaborative). 132 EFL advanced learners aged from 14-20 were considered as the main participants. Learners were divided into 6 groups (i.e., three individual and three collaborative writing conditions). Furthermore, each writing condition included three groups with selective, comprehensive and no correction orientations. Data collection tools and procedures encompassed an institutionalized Placement Test, pre-test, and post-test. The treatment that lasted for nine sessions was followed by a post-test. Data was submitted to a series of ANOVA tests with follow up pair-wise comparisons and independent-samples t-tests. Findings indicated that: (1) CF, especially selective one, was more effective in enhancing learners’ writing accuracy, and (2) members of the collaborative writing groups outperformed those in the individual ones in terms of their writing accuracy development. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed in relation to enhancing writing accuracy of the learners.


Corrective feedback Collaborative writing Selective feedback Comprehensive feedback EFL learners



Ahmadi Shirazi, M., & Shekarabi, Z. (2014). The role of written corrective feedback in enhancing the linguistic accuracy of Iranian Japanese learners’ writing. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 2(1), 99-118.

Araghi, S. M., & Sahebkheir, F. (2014). The effect of focused versus unfocused corrective feedback on developing grammatical accuracy of Iranian EFL learners’ written performance within different gender groups. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 4(S3), 720-729.

Ashoori Tootkaboni, A., & Khatib, M. (2014). The efficacy of various kinds of error feedbackon improving writing accuracy of EFL learners. Bellaterra Journal of Teaching & Learning Language & Literature, 7(3), 30-46.

Aydin, Z. & Yildiz, S. (2014). Using wikis to promote collaborative EFL writing. Language Learning & Technology, 18(1), 160–180.

Batstone, R. (2010). Sociocognitive perspectives on language use and language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bitchener, J. (2008). Evidence in support of written corrective feedback. Journal of SecondLanguage Writing, 17(2), 102-118.

Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2008). The value of written corrective feedback for migrant and international students. Language Teaching Research Journal, 12(3), 409-431.

Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2010a). The contribution of written corrective feedback to language development: A ten month investigation. Applied Linguistics, 31(2), 193-214.

Burt, M. K. (1975). Error analysis in the adult EFL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 9(1), 53-63.

Brown, H. D. (2007). Teaching by principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy.White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.

Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a second or foreign language. United States: Heinle and Heinle.

Chandler, J. (2003). The efficacy of various kinds of error feedback for improvement in the accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12(3), 267-296.

Cheek, D. W. (1992). Thinking constructively about science: Technology and society education. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Corpuz, V. (2011). Error correction in second language writing: Teachers’ beliefs, practices, and students' preference (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).Queenland University of Technology, Faculty of Education. Retrieved from

Dale, H. (1994). Collaborative writing interactions in one ninth-grade classroom. Journal of Educational Research, 87(6), 334-344.

Du, F. (2018). Comparing students’ perceptions and their writing performance on collaborative writing: A case study. English Language Teaching, 11(12), 131-137.

Ellis, R. (2009). A typology of written corrective feedback types. ELT Journal, 63(2), 97-107.

Ellis, R., Sheen, Y., Murakami, M., & Takashima, H., (2008). The effects of focused and unfocused written corrective feedback in an English as a foreign language context. System 36(3), 353-371.

Fahim, M., & Haghani, M. (2012). Sociocultural perspectives on foreign language Learning. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(4), 693-699.

Ferris, D. (1999). The case of grammar correction in L2 writing classes: a response to Truscott (1996). Journal of Second Language Writing, 8(1), 1-11.

Ferris, D. (2003). Response to student writing: Implications for second language students. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ferris, D. (2004). The "grammar correction" debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime?). Journal of Second Language Writing, 13(1), 49-62.

Ferris, D. (2006). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of written error correction. In K. Hyland & F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues (pp. 81-104). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ferris, D. (2010). Second language writing research and written corrective feedback in SLA.Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32(2), 181-201.

Ferris, D. R., Pezone, S., Tade, C. R., & Tinti, S (1997). Teacher commentary on student writing: Descriptions and implications. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6(2), 155-182.

Fung, M. Y. (2011). Improving ESL learners’ academic text construction through a collaborative task. Pertanika Journal of Social Science & Humanities, 19(2), 475-485.

Ghandi, M., & Maghsoudi, M. (2014). The effect of direct and indirect corrective feedback on Iranian ELF learners’ spelling errors. English Language Teaching, 7(8), 53-61.

Ghoorchaei, B., Tavakoli, M., & Nejad Ansari, D. (2010). The impact of portfolios assessment on Iranian EFL students' essay writing: A process- oriented approach. Journal of Language Studies, 10(3), 35-51.

Godwin-Jones, R. (2018). Second language writing online: An update. Language Learning & Technology, 22(1), 1–15.

Gousseva-Goodwin, J. V. (2000). Collaborative writing assignments and on-line Discussions in An advanced ESL composition class (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, USA.

Hansen, J., & Liu, J. (2005). Guiding principles for effective peer response. ELT Journal, 59(1), 31- 38.

Hendrickson, J. M. (1980). The treatment of error in written work. Modern Language Journal, 64(2), 216-221.

Hyland, K., & Hyland, F. (2006). Feedback on second language students’ writing. Language Teaching, 39(2), 83-101.

Kahyalar, E., & Yılmaz, F. (2016). Teachers’ corrective feedback in writing classes: the impact of collaborating with a peer during the editing process on students’ uptake and retention. The Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 16(1), 148-160.

Karimi, M. (2014). The impact of teacher’s implicit versus explicit corrective feedback on learning l2 grammar by Iranian English learners. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(4), 223-234.

Koosha, M., & Yakhabi, M. (2013). Problems associated with the use of communicative language teaching in ELF context and possible solutions. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 1(2), 63-76.

Lalande, J. F. (1982). Reducing composition errors: An experiment. Modern Language Journal, 66(2), 140-149.

Lantolf, J. (2000). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lee, M. K. (2015). Peer feedback in second language writing: Investigating junior secondary students’ perspectives on inter-feedback and intra-feedback. System, 55, 1–10.

Li, S. (2010). The effectiveness of corrective feedback in SLA: A meta-analysis. Language Learning, 60(2), 309-365.

Li, M., & Zhu, W. (2017). Good or bad collaborative wiki writing: Exploring links between group interactions and writing products. Journal of Second Language Writing, 35, 38-53.

Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (2006). How languages are learned (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Long, M. H. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. C. Ritchie, & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of language acquisition Second language acquisition. New York: Academic Press.

Lyster, R., & Saito, K. (2010). Oral feedback in classroom SLA: A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32(2), 265-302.

Mackey, A., & Goo, J. (2007). Interaction research in SLA: A meta-analysis and research synthesis. In A. Mackey (Ed.), Conversational interaction in second language acquisition: A series of empirical studies (pp. 407-452). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Maleki, A., & Eslami, E. (2013). The effects of written corrective feedback techniques on EFL students’ control over grammatical construction of their written English. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(7), 1250-1257.

McDonough, K. (2004). Learner–learner interaction during pair and small group activities in a Thai EFL context. System, 32(2), 207–224.

Mozaffari, S. H. (2017). Comparing student-selected and teacher-assigned pairs on collaborative writing. Language Teaching Research, 21(4), 496-516.

Pashazadeh, A., &Marefat, H. (2010).The Long-term effect of selective written grammar feedback on EFL learners' acquisition of articles. Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji, 56, 49-67.

Pienemann, M. (1989). Is language teachable? Applied Linguistics, 10(1), 52-79.

Salimi, A., & Ahmadpour, M. (2015). The effect of direct vs. indirect written corrective feedback on L2 learners written accuracy in EFL context. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 4(1), 10-19.

Sarkhosh, M., Farahani, A. Kh., & Soleimani, M. (2012). Different types of corrective feedback and the improvement of the accuracy in the use of English simple past. The Iranian EFL Journal, 8(6), 258-280.

Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 129-158.

Sheen, Y. (2007). The effect of focused written corrective feedback and language aptitude on ESL learners’ acquisition of articles. TESOL Quarterly, 41(2), 255-283.

Sheen, Y., Wright, D., & Moldawa, A. (2009). Differential effects of focused and unfocused written correction on the accurate use of grammatical forms by adult ESL learners. System, 37(4), 556-569.

Shehadeh, A., & Coombe, C. (2010). Applications of task-based learning in TESOL. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

Storch, N. (2005). Collaborative writing: Product, process, and students’ reflections. Journal of Second Language Writing, 14(3), 153–173.

Storch, N. (2011). Collaborative writing in L2 contexts: Processes, outcomes, and future directions. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 275-288.

Storch, N. (2013). Collaborative writing in L2 classrooms. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Storch, N., & Wigglesworth, G. (2007). Writing tasks: The effects of Colloboration. In M. Garcı´a Mayo (Ed.), Investigating tasks in formal language learning (pp. 157–177). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (1998). Interaction and second language learning: Two adolescent French immersion students working together. Modern Language Journal, 82(3), 320–337.

Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (2002). Talking it through: Two French immersion learners' response to reformulation. International Journal of Educational Research, 37, 285-304.

Truscott, J. (1996). The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. LanguageLearning, 46(2), 327–369.

Truscott, J. (1999). The case for "The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes": A response to Ferris. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8(2), 111-122.

Truscott, J. (2007). The effect of error correction on learners’ ability to write accurately. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16(4), 255-272.

Truscott, J., & Hsu, A. (2008). Error correction, revision, and learning. Journal of SecondLanguage Writing, 17(4), 292-305.

Van Beuningen, C. (2010). Corrective feedback in L2 writing: Theoretical perspectives, empirical insights, and future directions. International Journal of English Studies, 10(2), 1-27.

Van Beuningen, C., De Jong, N., & Kuiken, F. (2008). The effect of direct and indirect corrective feedback on L2 learners' written accuracy..ITL International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 156, 279-296.

Van Beuningen, C., De Jong, N., & Kuiken, F. (2012). Evidence on the effectiveness of comprehensive error correction in second language writing. Language Learning, 62(1), 1-41.

Villamil, O. S., & de Guerrero, M. C. M. (1998). Assessing the impact of peer revision in L2 writing. Applied Linguistics, 19(4), 491–514.

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wigglesworth, G., & Storch, N. (2009). Pair versus individual writing: Effects on fluency, complexity and accuracy. Language Testing, 26(3), 445–466.

Wu, H. (2015). The effects of blog-supported collaborative writing on writing performance, writing anxiety and perceptions of EFL college students in Taiwan. (Unpublished PhD thesis, The University of South Florida, USA).

Yager, R. (1991). The constructivist learning model, towards real reform in science education. The Science Teacher, 58(6), 52-57.

Zarei, A. A., & Rahnama, M. R. (2013). The effect of written corrective feedback modes on ELF learners’ grammatical and lexical writing accuracy: From perceptions to facts. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL), 1(3), 1-14.

Zhang, M. X. (2018). Collaborative writing in the EFL classroom: The effects of L1 and L2 use. System, 76, 1-12.

Zheng, B., & Warschauer, M. (2017). Epilogue: Second language writing in the age of computer-mediated communication. Journal of Second Language Writing, 36, 61–67.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)
p-ISSN: 2252-8822, e-ISSN: 2620-5440

View IJERE Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.