Nominal Group Technique: ProSkiND Non-Digital Game Framework Based on Problem-Solving Skills for Preschool Early Mathematics

Siti Khadijah Anis, Alias Masek, Muhammad Nurtanto, Nur Kholifah


Non-digital games are a tool that can help children to build and improve problem solving skills in early mathematics learning. Teachers need to design a learning activity using non-digital games taken account problem solving skills in the learning activities. However, the application of problem-solving skills in early mathematics learning activities is challenging, as there is no specific reference that can be used as a guide in implementing effective learning activities. The Nominal Group Technique (NGT) approach is used to design the main components and elements of ProSkiND non-digital games framework based on the expert validation. A total of 12 experts were selected to validate the proposed main components and elements of the ProSkiND non-digital game using NGT online workshop. There are 5 main components with 41 elements were proposed: activity objective, teacher’s preparation, teacher’s role, children’s role, and activity evaluation. In this study, experts are asked to evaluate the ProSkiND non-digital games main components and elements based on the percentage value of agreement. The value of percentage of agreement that exceeds 70% (≥ 70%) is acceptable.  The findings in this phase will be used to develop main components and elements of the ProSkiND non-digital game framework based on problem solving skills for preschool Early Mathematics using the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) approach.


Non-Digital Games; Problem Solving Skills; Preschool; ProSkiND; Nominal Group Technique


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