STEM Literacy in Growing Vocational School Student HOTs in Science Learning: A Meta Analysis

Qori Agussuryani, Sudarmin Sudarmin, Woro Sumarni, Edy Cahyono, Ellianawati Ellianawati


The low HOTs of vocational students is shown from the approaches and models used in learning that are not specific, learning activities are limited to methods that have not been able to grow HOTs. One of the approaches offered in STEM. The research objective was to analyze STEM in growing HOTs through literature studies. The data collection method used a STEM systematic review from 2016-2020 based on the indexed findings of Google Scholar and Scopus (Database: Elsevier, Scopus, and Science Direct). Qualitative descriptive data analysis techniques on inductive deductive patterns. Based on data analysis, there are findings of 18 Google Scholar indexed articles and 20 Scopus indexed articles according to the inclusion criteria. The results showed that: 1) STEM integration patterns in growing HOTs obtained 6 STEM literacy patterns of 28% on google scholar and 4 STEM integration patterns of 65% in Scopus. 2) The trend of STEM and HOTs research from 2016-2020 has increased the most in 2020 by 56% on Google Scholar and 40% on Scopus. Most of the methods used are R&D with data analysis techniques in the form of t-test on Google Scholar data and survey methods with descriptive analysis on Scopus data. The difference in the publication trend on the integration pattern, the number of samples used is greater in the Scopus data, the method used is more dominant in the survey than R & D, but whatever the research design in STEM Literacy is, in principle, it can empower HOTs to increase learning activities.


A Meta Analysis; HOTs; Literature Study; Science Learning; STEM Literacy


S. C. Seman, W. M. W. Yusoff, and R. Embong, “Teachers Challenges in Teaching and Learning for Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) in Primary School,” Int. J. Asian Soc. Sci., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 534–545, 2017, doi: 10.18488/journal.1.2017.77.534.545.

H. Türkmen, “Creative Thinking Skills Analyzes of Vocational High School Students,” J. Educ. Instr. Stud., vol. 5, no. February, pp. 74–84, 2015.

L. Udompong and S. Wongwanich, “Diagnosis of the Scientific Literacy Characteristics of Primary Students,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 116, pp. 5091–5096, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1079.

L. W. Anderson et al., A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, abridged edition. White Plains, NY: Longman, 2001.

M. Tendrita, S. Mahanal, and S. Zubaidah, “Empowerment of Creative Thinking Skills through Think Pair Share Remap Model,” Proceeding Biol. Educ. Conf. (ISSN 2528-5742), vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 285–291, 2016.

A. Laius, A. Valdmann, and M. Rannikmäe, “A Comparison of Transferable Skills Development in Estonian School Biology at Gymnasium Level,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 177, no. July 2014, pp. 320–324, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.02.349.

Barry, “Beverage engineers: Creative international STEM project,” Int. J. Humanit. Soc. Sci., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 18–28, 2016.

K. Becker and K. Park, “Effects of integrative approaches among science , technology , engineering , and mathematics ( STEM ) subjects on students ’ learning : A preliminary meta-analysis,” J. STEM Educ., vol. 12, no. 5, 2011.

Collete & Chiappetta, Science Instruction in the middle and secondary school (3rd.ed). 1994.

Y. M. Heong, J. M. Yunos, W. Othman, R. Hassan, T. T. Kiong, and M. M. Mohamad, “The Needs Analysis of Learning Higher Order Thinking Skills for Generating Ideas,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 59, pp. 197–203, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.265.

A. Khoiri, “Meta Analysis Study: Effect of STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematic) towards Achievement,” Form. J. Ilm. Pendidik. MIPA, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 71–82, 2019, doi: 10.30998/formatif.v9i1.2937.

G. Knezek, R. Christensen, T. Tyler-Wood, and D. Gibson, “Gender Differences in Conceptualizations of STEM Career Interest: Complementary Perspectives from Data Mining, Multivariate Data Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling.,” J. STEM Educ. Innov. Res., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 13–19, 2015.

M. Dixon-Woods, “Systematic reviews and qualitative methods. In D. Silverman (Ed.),” Qual. Res. London Sage., 2011.

R. H. Ani Minarni, E. Elvis Napitupulu, “The Effect Of Learning Materials Based On Joyful Problem Based Learning Towards Students Mathematical Understanding Ability,” 2016.

I. Hasan, “Contextual Video: Critical Thinking-Based Learning Media in The Implementation of Curriculum 2013,” Din. Pendidik., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 136–147, 2018, doi: 10.15294/dp.v12i2.13562.

T. N. Utami, A. Jatmiko, and S. Suherman, “Pengembangan Modul Matematika dengan Pendekatan Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics (STEM) pada Materi Segiempat,” Desimal J. Mat., vol. 1, no. 2, p. 165, 2018, doi: 10.24042/djm.v1i2.2388.

O. F. Nugroho, A. Permanasari, and H. Firman, “The movement of stem education in Indonesia: Science teachers’ perspectives,” J. Pendidik. IPA Indones., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 417–425, 2019, doi: 10.15294/jpii.v8i3.19252.

N. Komariah, Mujasam, I. Yusuf, and S. W. Widyaningsih, “Pengaruh penerapan model PBL berbantuan media GOOGLE CLASSROOM terhadap HOTS, motivasi dan minat peserta didik,” Silampari J. Pendidik. Ilmu Fis., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 102–114, 2019.

Reksiana, “Deskripsi Berpikir Higher Order Thingking Skill ( HOTS ) Dalam Proses Pembelajaran Kurikulum ( Silabus dan RPS ) KKNI Pada Mata Kuliah (Studi PAI Tingkat SMP) di IIQ Jakarta,” no. 1, pp. 66–93, 2019.

Karnuriman, Haryono, and S. Wardani, “Development of STEM Workers Based on STEM to Optimize Curriculum 2013 Implementation,” Innov. J. Curric. Educ. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 74–77, 2019.

H. Husamah, A. M. Hudha, and Z. A. Putri, “HOTS-authentic assessment model implementation of tissue structure materials in high school of Malang: A pre-validation final draft,” Prism. Sains J. Pengkaj. Ilmu dan Pembelajaran Mat. dan IPA IKIP Mataram, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 113–125, 2019, doi: 10.33394/j-ps.v7i2.1997.

Q. Agussuryani, W. Sumarni, B. Subali, and S. Saptono, “Implementation of STEM Integrated Ethnoscience-based Vocational Science Learning in Fostering Students ’ Higher Order Thinking Skills ( HOTs ),” Int. J. Act. Learn., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 53–61, 2020.

U. B. Harun, “Project-Based Learning Integrated To Stem (Stem-Pjbl) To Enhance Arabic Learning Hots-Based,” Al-Bidayah J. Pendidik. Dasar Islam, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 139–150, 2020, doi: 10.14421/al-bidayah.v12i1.230.

N. H. Astuti, A. Rusilowati, and B. Subali, “STEM-Based Learning Analysis to Improve Students’ Problem Solving Abilities in Science Subject: a Literature Review,” J. Innov. Sci. Educ., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 79–86, 2020, doi: 10.15294/jise.v9i2.38505.

D. A. Rokhim, A. B. Syafruddin, and H. R. Widarti, “Analysis of Need for Teaching Materials Based STEM-PjBL Assisted,” Umsida J., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 199–210, 2020, doi: 10.21070/pedagogia.v9i2.7.

N. Apriyanti, F. Cianda, and A. Burhendi, “Analysis of the Needs of Higher Order Thinking Skills ( HOTS ) Using A Four Tier Type Test Diagnostic Instrument in Learning Physics,” in The 2nd International Conference of Education on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (ICE-STEM, 2020, pp. 131–135.

D. Triana, Y. U. Anggraito, and S. Ridlo, “Effectiveness of Environmental Change Learning Tools Based on STEM-PjBL Towards 4C Skills of Students,” J. Innov. Sci. Educ., vol. 9, no. 37, pp. 244–249, 2020.

Y. R. Liana, S. Linuwih, and S. Sulhadi, “Problem-Based Learning Supported with Experiment Media Based on the Internet of Things to Enhance the Students’ HOTS Ability,” Sci. Educ., vol. 9, no. 1, p. 40, 2020, doi: 10.24235/sc.educatia.v9i1.6452.

L. Indrawati, “KeterampIlan Berpikir Tingkat Tinggi Dalam Pembelajaran Berbasis Proyek Berintegrasi Science Technology Engineering And Mathematics,” Univ. Tanjungpura, 2020.

A. N. Wardani and M. Ibrahim, “Karakteristik Soal Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Materi Dampak Penyalahgunaan Psikotropika Untuk SMA,” BioEdu Berk. Ilm. Pendidik. Biol., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 60–64, 2020.

N. Nadhiroh and S. Latifah, “Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)-Based Students’ Worksheets in Thermodynamics Materials,” Indones. J. Sci. Math. Educ., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 87–95, 2020, doi: 10.24042/ijsme.v3i1.6082.

P. Pimthong and J. Williams, “Preservice teachers’ understanding of STEM education,” Kasetsart J. Soc. Sci., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 289–295, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.kjss.2018.07.017.

L. Thibaut, H. Knipprath, W. Dehaene, and F. Depaepe, “The influence of teachers’ attitudes and school context on instructional practices in integrated STEM education,” Teach. Teach. Educ., vol. 71, pp. 190–205, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2017.12.014.

M. Horvath, J. E. Goodell, and V. D. Kosteas, “Decisions to enter and continue in the teaching profession: Evidence from a sample of U.S. secondary STEM teacher candidates,” Teach. Teach. Educ., vol. 71, pp. 57–65, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2017.12.007.

M. Giamellaro and D. R. Siegel, “Coaching teachers to implement innovations in STEM,” Teach. Teach. Educ., vol. 76, pp. 25–38, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2018.08.002.

R. E. Brown and C. A. Bogiages, “Professional Development Through STEM Integration: How Early Career Math and Science Teachers Respond to Experiencing Integrated STEM Tasks,” Int. J. Sci. Math. Educ., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 111–128, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s10763-017-9863-x.

D. L. Carlisle and G. C. Weaver, “STEM education centers: catalyzing the improvement of undergraduate STEM education,” Int. J. STEM Educ., vol. 5, no. 1, 2018, doi: 10.1186/s40594-018-0143-2.

L. D. English, “STEM education K-12: perspectives on integration,” Int. J. STEM Educ., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2016, doi: 10.1186/s40594-016-0036-1.

T. R. Kelley and J. G. Knowles, “A conceptual framework for integrated STEM education,” Int. J. STEM Educ., vol. 3, no. 1, 2016, doi: 10.1186/s40594-016-0046-z.

J. Appianing and R. N. Van Eck, “Development and validation of the Value-Expectancy STEM Assessment Scale for students in higher education,” Int. J. STEM Educ., vol. 5, no. 1, 2018, doi: 10.1186/s40594-018-0121-8.

T. D. Holmlund, K. Lesseig, and D. Slavit, “Making sense of ‘STEM education’ in K-12 contexts,” 2018.

M. El Nagdi, F. Leammukda, and G. Roehrig, “Developing identities of STEM teachers at emerging STEM schools,” Int. J. STEM Educ., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2020, doi: 10.1186/s40594-018-0136-1.

X. Wu, J. Deshler, and E. Fuller, “The effects of different versions of a gateway STEM course on student attitudes and beliefs,” Int. J. STEM Educ., vol. 5, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1186/s40594-018-0141-4.

K. Rainey, M. Dancy, R. Mickelson, E. Stearns, and S. Moller, “Race and gender differences in how sense of belonging influences decisions to major in STEM,” Int. J. STEM Educ., vol. 5, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1186/s40594-018-0115-6.

V. Seyranian, A. Madva, N. Duong, N. Abramzon, Y. Tibbetts, and J. M. Harackiewicz, “The longitudinal effects of STEM identity and gender on flourishing and achievement in college physics,” Int. J. STEM Educ., vol. 5, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1186/s40594-018-0137-0.

K. A. Blotnicky, T. Franz-Odendaal, F. French, and P. Joy, “A study of the correlation between STEM career knowledge, mathematics self-efficacy, career interests, and career activities on the likelihood of pursuing a STEM career among middle school students,” Int. J. STEM Educ., vol. 5, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1186/s40594-018-0118-3.

R. Jagannathan, M. J. Camasso, and M. Delacalle, “Promoting cognitive and soft skills acquisition in a disadvantaged public school system: Evidence from the Nurture thru Nature randomized experiment,” Econ. Educ. Rev., vol. 70, no. July 2018, pp. 173–191, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2019.04.005.

Abdurrahman, “Developing STEM Learning Makerspace for Fostering Student’s 21st Century Skills in the Fourth Industrial Revolution Era,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1155, no. 1, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1155/1/012002.

T. Srimadhaven, A. V. Chris Junni, N. Harshith, S. Jessenth Ebenezer, S. Shabari Girish, and M. Priyaadharshini, “Learning analytics: Virtual reality for programming course in higher education,” Procedia Comput. Sci., vol. 172, no. 2019, pp. 433–437, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2020.05.095.

N. Khairuddin, “A Meta-Analysis on Developing Effective Hots Questioning Skills for Stem Teachers in Malaysia,” Int. J. Psychosoc. Rehabil., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 5346–5358, 2020, doi: 10.37200/ijpr/v24i5/pr2020241.

P. Raja, Abdurrahman, and A. B. Setiyadi, “Exploring Teacher’s Pedagogical Content Knowledge Improvement: The Opportunity and Challenging of Integrated STEM Learning Approach for Non-STEM Majors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1467, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1467/1/012070.

W. Sumarni, Sudarmin, Wiyanto, and Supartono, “The reconstruction of society indigenous science into scientific knowledge in the production process of palm sugar,” J. Turkish Sci. Educ., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 281–292, 2016, doi: 10.12973/tused.10185a.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)
p-ISSN: 2252-8822, e-ISSN: 2620-5440

View IJERE Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.