The Permissive Non-Parental Care and Moral Intelligence: Indonesian setting

Falakhul Auliya, Yuli Kurniawati Sugiyo Pranoto, Sunawan Sunawan, Ali Sunarso


Most parents in Indonesia are unable to provide maximum care for the children while working. Childcare includes fostering moral intelligence, which is carried out by grandmothers, household assistants, and daycare caregivers. Furthermore, 178 young children (95 boys and 83 girls) and 178 caregivers (68 grandmothers, 54 household assistants, and 56 daycare caregivers) were involved in the study. Simple regression analysis was used to examine Parenthood on moral intelligence, and and moderator analysis was used to test permissive non-parental care and moral intelligence in early childhood. The results showed that authoritative and permissive Parenthood has an effect on moral intelligence and that the effects of permissive on moral intelligence are only moderately influenced. Permissive non-parental care and Moral Intelligence applies to the group of grandmothers and household assistants. The research provides a detailed description of the role of predictors on moral intelligence in non-parental care.


Parenting; Moral Intelligence, Non-Parental


J. G. Smetana, “Becoming moral: Introduction to the special issue on early moral development,” Hum. Dev., vol. 61, no. 4–5, pp. 209–213, 2018.

N. Eskandari et al., “Explaining the Relationship between Moral Intelligence and Professional Self-Concept with the Competency of Nursing students in Providing Spiritual Care to Promote Nursing Education,” J. Educ. Health Promot., vol. 8, pp. 1–6, 2019.

J. M. A. M. Janssens and D. Maja, “Parents ’ Child-Rearing Style and Child ’ s Sociometric Status,” Dev. Psychol., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 925–932, 1992.

O. I. Olusola and A. O. Samson, “Moral Intelligence: An Antidote to Examination Malpractices in Nigerian Schools,” Univers. J. Educ. Res., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 32–38, 2015.

M. Beheshtifar, Z. Esmaeli, and M. N. Moghadam, “Effect of Moral Intelligence on Leadership,” Eur. J. Econ. Financ. Adm. Sci., vol. 43, no. 43, pp. 6–11, 2011.

M. Raisi, H. A. Tehran, S. Bakouei, and S. Momenuan, “Moral Intelligence and Aggression in Students,” J. Biostat. Epidemiol., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2018.

M. Toprak and M. Karakus, “Teachers’ moral intelligence: A scale adaptation into Turkish and preliminary evidence,” Eur. J. Educ. Res., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 901–911, 2018.

M. Borba, Building moral intelligence. 2001.

J. W. Santrock, Perkembangan Anak. 2007.

H. M. Beißert and M. Hasselhorn, “Individual differences in moral development: Does intelligence really affect children’s moral reasoning and moral emotions?,” Front. Psychol., vol. 7, no. DEC, pp. 1–10, 2016.

C. R. P. Ajisuksmo, “Keterkaitan Antara Moral Knowing, Moral Feeling, Dan Moral Behavior Pada Empat Kompetensi Dasar Guru,” J. Kependidikan Penelit. Inov. Pembelajaran, vol. 45, no. 2, 2015.

M. Khosravani, M. Khosravani, F. Borhani, and M. Mohsenpour, “The relationship between moral intelligence and organizational commitment of nurses,” Clin. Ethics, vol. 0, no. 0, pp. 1–6, 2020.

M. Christen and D. Narvaez, “Moral Development in Early Childhood Is Key for Moral Enhancement,” AJOB Neurosci., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 25–26, 2012.

K. Campaert, N. Annalaura, and M. Ersilia, “The Role of Poor Parenting and Parental Approval for Children ’ s Moral Disengagement,” J. Child Fam. Stud., vol. 27, pp. 2656–2667, 2018.

M. E. Augustine and C. A. Stifter, “Temperament, parenting, and moral development: Specificity of behavior and context,” Soc. Dev., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 285–303, 2015.

R. Karmakar, “Does Parenting Style Influence the Internalization of Moral Values in Children and Adolescents ?,” Psychol Stud, vol. 60, no. December, pp. 438–446, 2015.

A. Alhadabi, S. Aldhafri, H. Alkharusi, I. Al-Harthy, M. Alrajhi, and H. AlBarashdi, “Modelling parenting styles, moral intelligence, academic self-efficacy and learning motivation among adolescents in grades 7–11,” Asia Pacific J. Educ., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 133–153, 2019.

Worldbank, “Labor force participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+) (modeled ILO estimate) | Data,” 2020, 2020. [Online]. Available:

E. W. Latifah, K. Diah, and P. Herien, “Pengaruh Pengasuhan Ibu dan Nenek terhadap Perkembangan Kemandirian dan Kognitif Anak Usia Prasekolah,” Jur. Ilm. Kel. Kons, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 21–32, 2016.

S. S. Supsiloani, puspitawati puspitawati Puspitawati, and N. Hasanah, “Eksistensi Taman Penitipan Anak dan Manfaatnya bagi Ibu Rumah Tangga yang Bekerja (Studi Kasus di TPA Dharma Asih Kota Medan),” Jupiis J. Pendidik. Ilmu-Ilmu Sos., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 119–124, 2015.

S. Ma, E. E. Chen, and H. Li, “Foreign Domestic Helpers’ Involvement in Non-Parental Childcare: A Multiple Case Study in Hong Kong,” J. Res. Child. Educ., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 427–446, 2020.

C. Zhang et al., “How urban Chinese parents with 14-month-old children talk about nanny care and childrearing ideals,” J. Fam. Stud., vol. 0, no. 0, pp. 1–17, 2018.

M. L. S. De Moura, L. F. Pessôa, D. De Oliveira Ramos, D. M. L. F. Mendes, A. C. M. Fioravanti-Bastos, and L. B. T. Dias, “Beliefs of mothers, nannies, grandmothers and daycare providers concerning childcare,” Paideia, vol. 24, no. 59, pp. 341–349, 2014.

I. Loudová and J. Lašek, “Parenting Style and its Influence on the Personal and Moral Development of the Child,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 174, pp. 1247–1254, 2015.

S. M. Shadmanfaat, J. Choi, S. Kabiri, and I. Yun, “Assessing the Links Between Parenting Practices, Moral Emotions, and Cyberbullying Perpetrations Among a Sample of Iranian Sports Fans,” Int. J. Offender Ther. Comp. Criminol., vol. 00, no. 0, pp. 1–22, 2020.

D. Baumrind, Effects of Authoritative Parental Control on Child Behavior, vol. 37, no. 4. 1966.

Z. Babajanzadeh and A. K. Mohammadi Otaghsara, “Investigate the Relationship between Parenting Styles with Development of Moral Judgment in Children 4 - 6 Years in Kindergartens of the City of Babol,” Mediterr. J. Soc. Sci., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 92–99, 2016.

H. Masud, M. S. Ahmad, K. W. Cho, and Z. Fakhr, “Parenting Styles and Aggression Among Young Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Literature,” Community Ment. Health J., vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1015–1030, 2019.

R. Hosokawa and T. Katsura, “Role of parenting style in children’s behavioral problems through the transition from preschool to elementary school according to gender in Japan,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 16, no. 1, 2019.

W. N. Tan and M. Yasin, “Parents’ roles and parenting styles on shaping children’s morality,” Univers. J. Educ. Res., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 70–76, 2020.

M. Shahsavari, “A general overview on parenting styles and its effective factors,” Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci., vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 139–142, 2012.

R. Forehand and B. A. Kotchick, “Cultural diversity: A wake-up call for parent training,” Behav. Ther., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 187–206, 1996.

R. L. Selman, “The relation of role taking to the development of moral judgment in children.,” Child Dev., vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 79–91, 1971.

H. Kotaman, “Freedom and Child Rearing: Critic of Parenting Practices from a New Perspective,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 82, pp. 39–50, 2013.

J. A. Merin, “Practical Review and Evaluation on Parenting Education,” Int. J. Eval. Res. Educ., vol. 7, no. 3, p. 253, 2018

Total views : 25 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)
p-ISSN: 2252-8822, e-ISSN: 2620-5440

View IJERE Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.