Serial mediation of self-esteem and learned-helplessness on the relationship between perceived cyber-victimized and perceived depression among social media users

Kususanto Ditto Prihadi, Yen Ling Hui, Melissa Jane Chua, Calvin K.W. Chang

Abstract


Literature suggests that the perception of being cyber-victimized is a stronger predictor of depression symptoms than the perception of being victimized offline, and that learned-helplessness can explain the prediction of perceived cyber-victimization on perceived depression. Nevertheless, other studies suggested that the link between perceived cyber-victimized and learned-helplessness is weakened by state self-esteem. This study investigates the double mediation effect of state self-esteem and learned-helplessness on the relationship between perceived cyber-victimized and perceived depression. 105 participants between 18 and 30 years of age (63 females, 41 males, 1 prefer not to say) have been recruited through haphazard sampling method to fill in the Cyberbullying Victimization Scale, State Self-Esteem Scale, Learned Helplessness Scale, and Beck’s Depression Inventory. Our findings suggest that the double mediation effect occurs. In other words, cyberbullied social media users will only fall into perceived depression when their state self-esteem is also negatively affected by their perception of being cyberbullied, up to the point where they learn that they are helpless.   


Keywords


cyber-victimization, perceived depression, self-esteem, learned-helplessness

References


References

A. M. Kaplan and M. Haenlein, "Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media," Business horizons,, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 59-68, 2010.

K. Erwin and B. Shatto, "Moving on From Millennials: Preparing for Generation Z," The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 253-254, 2016.

T. Heiman and D. Olenik-Shemesh, "Cyberbullying Victimization in Adolescents as Related to Body Esteem, Social Support, and Social Self-Efficacy," Journal of interpersonal violenc, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 23-48, 2017.

T. M. Dumas, P. A. Giuliettia, J. P. Davi and M. Maxwell-Smith, "Lying or longing for likes? Narcissism, peer belonging, loneliness and normative versus deceptive like-seeking on Instagram in emerging adulthood," Computers in Human Behavior, no. 71, pp. 1-10, 2017.

K. Prihadi and M. Chua, "Students' Self-esteem at School: The Risk, the Challenge, and the Cure," Journal of Education and Learning, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 1-14, 2012.

M. Tiggemann, S. Hayden, Z. Brown and J. Veldhuis, "The effect of Instagram “likes” on women’s social comparison and body dissatisfaction," Body Image, vol. 26, pp. 90-97, 2018.

C. P. Barlett, D. A. Gentile and C. Chew, "Predicting cyberbullying from anonymity.," Psychology of Popular Media Culture, vol. 2, no. 5, p. 171, 2016.

M. Arntfield, "Towards a cybervictimology: Cyberbullying, routine activities theory, and the anti-sociality of social media," Canadian Journal of Communication, vol. 3, 2015.

A. Karmen, Crime victims: An introduction to victimology (6th edition)., Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 2007.

B. Turvey, Forensic victimology: Examining violent crime victims in investigative and legal, Waltham, MA:: Academic Press., 2013.

L. E. Cohen and M. Felson, "Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach," American sociological review, pp. 588-608, 1979.

E. B. Dowdell, A. W. Burgess and J. R. Flore, "Online social networking patterns among adolescents, young adults, and sexual offenders.," AJN The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 111, no. 7, pp. 28-36, 2011.

C. J. Ferguson, "Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: Incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors," Psychiatric Quarterly, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 239-243, 2011.

C. P. Barlett, "Predicting adolescent's cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis," Journal of adolescence, vol. 41, pp. 86-95, 2015.

M. Arntfield, Cybercrime & cyberdeviance. Criminology: A Canadian perspective, 2014, pp. 500-516.

S. Hinduja and J. W. Patchin, "Cyberbullying: An exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization," Deviant behavior, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 129-156, 2008.

M. Ito, Hanging out, messing around, and geeking out: Kids living and learning with new, Cambridge, MA:: MIT Press, 2013.

W. V. Pelfrey Jr and N. L. Weber, "Keyboard gangsters: Analysis of incidence and correlates of cyberbullying in a large urban student population," Deviant Behavior, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 68-84, 2013.

D. M. Law, J. D. Shapka, J. F. Domene and M. H. Gagné, "Are cyberbullies really bullies? An investigation of reactive and proactive online aggression," omputers in Human BehavioR, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 664-672, 2012.

A. G. Zimmerman and G. J. Ybarra, "Online aggression: The influences of anonymity and social modeling," Psychology of Popular Media Culture, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 181, 2016.

M. K. Martinez-Dick, The effect of bystander behavior and victim response on teenage girls' perceptions of chat room cyberbullying, Illinois State University, 2013.

K. Prihadi, C. Y. H. Tan, R. T. S. Tan, P. Yong, J. H. E. Yong, S. Tinagaran, C. L. Goh and Y. J. Tee, "Mediation Role of Locus of Control on the Relationship of Learned-Helplessness and Academic Procrastination," International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 87-93, 2018.

S. Eden, T. Heiman and D. Olenik‐Shemesh, "Teachers’ perceptions, beliefs and concerns about cyberbullying," British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1036-1052, 2013.

S. Hinduja and J. W. Patchin, "Cyberbullying fact sheet: A brief review of relevant legal and policy issues.," 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www. cyberbullying. us/cyberbullying_legal_issues. pdf.

R. Didden, R. H. Scholte, H. Korzilius, J. M. De Moor, A. Vermeulen, M. O’Reilly, R. Lang and G. E. Lancioni, "Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings," Developmental neurorehabilitation, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 146-151, 2009.

D. L. Espelage, S. Low and L. De La Rue, "Relations between peer victimization subtypes, family violence, and psychological outcomes during early adolescence," Psychology of Violence, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 313, 2012.

R. Slonje and P. K. Smith, "Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying?," Scandinavian journal of psychology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 147-154, 2008.

R. A. Bonanno and S. Hymel, "Cyber bullying and internalizing difficulties: Above and beyond the impact of traditional forms of bullying," Journal of youth and adolescence, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 685-697, 2013.

J. W. Patchin and S. Hinduja, "Bullies move beyond the schoolyard: A preliminary look at cyberbullying," Youth violence and juvenile justice, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 148-169, 2006.

M. L. Ybarra, K. J. Mitchell, J. Wolak and D. Finkelhor, "Examining characteristics and associated distress related to Internet harassment: findings from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey," Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. E1169-E1177, 2006.

D. Olweus, "Cyberbullying: An overrated phenomenon?," uropean Journal of Developmental Psychology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 520-538, 2012.

G. Brewer and J. Kerslake, "Cyberbullying, self-esteem, empathy and loneliness," Computers in human behavior, vol. 48, pp. 255-260, 2015.

J. M. Cénat, M. Hébert, M. Blais, F. Lavoie, M. Guerrier and D. Derivois, "Cyberbullying, psychological distress and self-esteem among youth in Quebec schools," Journal of affective disorders,, vol. 169, pp. 7-9, 2014.

A. L. Palermiti, R. Servidio, M. G. Bartolo and A. Costabile, "Cyberbullying and self-esteem: An Italian study.," Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 69, pp. 136-141, 2017.

S. Hinduja and J. W. Patchin, "Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide," Archives of suicide research, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 206-221, 2010.

M. B. Donnellan, D. A. Kenny, K. H. Trzesniewski, R. E. Lucas and R. D. Conger, "Using trait–state models to evaluate the longitudinal consistency of global self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood," Journal of research in personality, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 634-645, 2012.

D. A. Kenny and A. Zautra, "Trait–state models for longitudinal data.," in Decade of behavior. New methods for the analysis of change, Washington, DC, American Psychological Association., 2001, pp. 243-263.

J. Wagner, O. Lüdtke and U. Trautwein, "Self‐esteem is mostly stable across young adulthood: Evidence from latent STARTS models," Journal of Personality, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 523-535, 2016.

M. R. Leary, E. S. Tambor, S. K. Terdal and D. L. Downs, "Self-esteem as an interpersonal monitor: the sociometer hypothesis," Journal of personality and social psychology, vol. 68, no. 3, p. 518, 1995.

T. Pyszczynski, J. Greenberg, S. Solomon, J. Arndt and J. Schimel, "Why do people need self-esteem? A theoretical and empirical review," Psychological bulletin, vol. 130, no. 3, p. 435, 2004.

E. Whittaker and R. M. Kowalski, "Cyberbullying via social media," Journal of School Violence, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 11-29, 2015.

C. A. Rose and B. M. Tynes, "Longitudinal associations between cybervictimization and mental health among US adolescents," Journal of Adolescent Health,, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 305-312, 2015.

J. E. Tennant, M. K. Demaray, S. Coyle and C. K. Malecki, "The dangers of the web: Cybervictimization, depression, and social support in college students," Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 50, pp. 348-357, 2015.

S. Perren, J. Dooley, T. Shaw and D. Cross, ". Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents," Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 28, 2010.

C. F. Brown, M. K. Demaray and S. M. Secord, "Cyber victimization in middle school and relations to social emotional outcomes," Computers in human behavior, vol. 35, pp. 12-21, 2014.

R. M. Kowalski, G. W. Giumetti, A. N. Schroeder and M. R. Lattanner, "Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth.," Psychological bulletin, vol. 140, no. 4, p. 1073, 2014.

E. M. Selkie, R. Kota, Y. F. Chan and M. Moreno, "Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study," Cyberpsychology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 79-86, 2015.

A. G. Dempsey, M. L. Sulkowski, R. Nichols and E. Storch, "Differences between peer victimization in cyber and physical settings and associated psychosocial adjustment in early adolescence.," Psychology in the Schools, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 962-972, 2009.

R. R. Landoll, A. M. La Greca, B. S. Lai, S. F. Chan and W. M. Herge, "Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms," ournal of adolescenc, vol. 42, pp. 77-86, 2015.

J. D. Lipton, "Combating cyber-victimization," Berkeley Tech, p. 1103, 2011.

R. Kraut, M. Patterson, V. Lundmark, S. Kiesler, T. Mukophadhyay and W. Scherlis, "Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being?," American psychologist, vol. 53, no. 9, p. 1017, 1998.

L. H. Shaw and L. M. Gant, "In defense of the Internet: The relationship between Internet communication and depression, loneliness, self-esteem, and perceived social support.," Internet Research, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 157-171, 2004.

M. A. Longmore and A. DeMaris, "Perceived inequity and depression in intimate relationships: The moderating effect of self-esteem," Social Psychology Quarterly, pp. 172-184, 1997.

A. Babore, C. Trumello, C. Candelori, M. Paciello and L. Cerniglia, "Depressive symptoms, self-esteem and perceived parent–child relationship in early adolescence," Frontiers in psychology, vol. 7, p. 982., 2016.

U. Orth, R. Robins, K. Widaman and R. Conger, "Is low self-esteem a risk factor for depression? Findings from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth.," Developmental Psychology, vol. 50, p. 622–633, 2014.

K. Geukes, S. Nestler, R. Hutteman, M. Dufner, A. C. Küfner, B. Egloff and M. D. D. J. Back, "Puffed-up but shaky selves: State self-esteem level and variability in narcissists," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 112, no. 5, p. 769, 2017.

T. F. Heatherton and J. Polivy, "Heatherton, T. F., & Polivy, J.," Journal of Personality and Social psychology, vol. 60, no. 6, p. 895, 1991.

E. Choi and I. Choi, "The associations between body dissatisfaction, body figure, self-esteem, and depressed mood in adolescents in the United States and Korea: A moderated mediation analysis," Journal of adolescence, vol. 53, pp. 249-259, 2016.

K. N. Mossakowski, "Disadvantaged Family Background and Depression among Young Adults in the United States: The Roles of Chronic Stress and Self-Esteem.," Stress and Health, vol. 31, no. 1, p. 52–62, 2013.

H. Blumer, Blumer, H, Univ of California Press, 1986.

C. H. Cooley, "Looking-glass self," The production of reality: Essays and readings on social interaction, vol. 6, 1902.

Z. Ismail and A. Majeed, "Student Self Esteem and Their Perception of Teacher Behavior: A Study of Class Grouping System in Pakistan," International Journal of Business and Social Science, vol. 2, no. 16, 2011.

D. McGillicuddy and D. Devine, "“Turned off” or “ready to fly”–Ability grouping as an act of symbolic violence in primary school," Teaching and Teacher Education, vol. 70, pp. 88-99, 2018.

K. Prihadi, N. I. Hairul and J. Hazri, ""Students' self-esteem and their perception of teacher behavior: a study of between-class ability grouping."," 2010.

K. Prihadi, N. I. Hairul and J. Hazri, "Mediation effect of Locus of Control on the causal relationship between students' perceived teachers' expectancy and self-esteeem.," lectronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology,, vol. 12, no. 2, 2012.

E. Choi and I. Choi, "The associations between body dissatisfaction, body figure, self-esteem, and depressed mood in adolescents in the United States and Korea: A moderated mediation analysis," Journal of adolescence, vol. 53, pp. 249-259., 2016.

C. Langos, "Cyberbullying: The challenge to define," Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 285-289, 2012.

E. K. Corby, M. Campbell, B. Spears, P. Slee, D. Butler and S. Kift, "Students’ perceptions of their own victimization: A youth voice perspective," Journal of school violence, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 322-342, 2016.

A. K. Przybylski, K. Murayama, C. R. DeHaan and V. Gladwell, "Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out," Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1841-1848, 2013.

K. N. Sobba, R. A. Paez and T. Ten Bensel, "Perceptions of cyberbullying: an assessment of perceived severity among college students," TechTrends, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 570-579, 2017.

M. E. Seligman, "Learned helplessness," Annual review of medicine, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 407-412, 1972.

D. T. Rose and L. Abramson, "IX developmental predictors cf depressive cognitive style: research and theory," Developmental perspectives on depression, vol. 4, p. 323, 1992.

R. S. Tokunaga, "Following you home from school: A critical review and synthesis of research on cyberbullying victimization," Computers in human behavior, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 277-287, 2010.

B. Joel, G. Marie, B. Jon, M. Ted, T. Barbara, W. L. Wendy and M. Alan, "The roles of self-esteem and self-consciousness in the Wortman-Brehm model of reactance and learned helplessness.," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 45, no. 1, p. 199, 1983.

L. Y. Abramson, M. E. Seligman and J. D. Teasdale, "Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation," Journal of abnormal psychology, vol. 87, p. 49, 1978.

R. T. Liu, E. M. Kleiman, B. A. Nestor and S. M. Cheek, "The hopelessness theory of depression: A quarter‐century in review," Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 345-365., 2015.

R. Young, S. Miles and S. Alhabash, "Attacks by Anons: A Content Analysis of Aggressive Posts, Victim Responses, and Bystander Interventions on a Social Media Site," Social Media+ Society, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 2056305118762444., 2018.

A. L. S. R. Palermiti, M. G. Bartolo and A. Costabile, "Cyberbullying and self-esteem: An Italian study," Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 69, pp. 136-141., 2017.

H. Cheng and A. Furnham, "Personality, self-esteem, and demographic predictions of happiness and depression," Personality and individual differences,, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 921-942., 2003.

F. Bozorgpour and A. Salimi, "Bozorgpour, F., & Salimi, A.," Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 69, pp. 2004-2008, 2012.

R. Kraut, M. Patterson, V. Lundmark, S. Kiesler, T. Mukophadhyay and W. Scherlis, "Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being?," American psychologist, vol. 53, no. 9, p. 1017., 1998.

M. A. Longmore and A. Demaris, "Perceived Inequity and Depression in Intimate Relationships: The Moderating Effect of Self-Esteem," Social Psychology Quarterly, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 172-184, 1997.

A. Babore, C. Trumello, C. Candelori, M. Paciello and L. Cerniglia, "Depressive symptoms, self-esteem and perceived parent–child relationship in early adolescence.," Frontiers in psychology, vol. 7, no. 982, pp. 1-7, 2016.

M. Rosenberg, "Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE).," Acceptance and commitment therapy. Measures package,, pp. 61, 52, 1965.

R. Kraut, M. Patterson, V. Lundmark, S. Kiesler, T. Mukophadhyay and W. Scherlis, "Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being?," American psychologist, vol. 53, no. 9, p. 1017, 1998.

L. H. Shaw and L. M. Gant, "In defense of the Internet: The relationship between Internet communication and depression, loneliness, self-esteem, and perceived social support," Internet Researc, vol. 28, no. 3, 2004.

G. Katharina, N. Steffen, H. Roos, C. P. Albrecht, E. Boris, J. A. D. Jaap and D. Mitja, "Puffed-up but shaky selves: State self-esteem level and variability in narcissists.," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 112, no. 5, p. 769, 2017.

G. S. do Nascimento, A. Walsh-Monteiro and A. Gouveia Jr, "A reliable depression-like model in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Learned helplessness," Psychology & Neuroscience, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 390, 2016.

S. D. Mills, D. Azizoddin, S. Gholizadeh, G. Z. Racaza and P. M. Nicassio, "The mediational role of helplessness in psychological outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus," Lupus, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1185-1189, 2018.

F. S. Cakar and S. An Exploratory Study of Adolescent's Help-Seeking Sources Savi, "An Exploratory Study of Adolescent's Help-Seeking Sources," Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 159, pp. 610-614, 2014.




DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v9i1.20266
Total views : 78 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE)
p-ISSN: 2252-8822, e-ISSN: 2620-5440

View IJERE Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.